Patho Final

The flashcards below were created by user ChristinaRachael on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. T/F: Tumor = Cancer
    • False:
    • Neoplasm=Tumor=New Growth
    • *may be Malignant or Benign
  2. Malignant
    • Rapid Growth
    • Not Encapsulated
    • Invade Local Structures & Tissues
    • Poorly Differentiated
    • ^ Mitotic Index (how fast its growing)
    • Tends to Metastasize
    • Can Remove Surgically but Most of the Time Requires Extra Treatment (Chemotherapy)
  3. Benign
    • Slow Growth
    • Encapsulated
    • Not Invasive
    • Well-Differentiated
    • Low Mitotic Index
    • Seldom Metastasizes
    • Can remove Surgically & usually w/o extra treatment (ex. chemotherapy)
  4. Transformation
    Process by which Normal Cell-->Cancer Cell

    Normal Cell --(Initiation)-->Cell--(Promotion)-->Preneoplastic Lesion--(Conversion)-->Malignant Lesion--(Progression)-->

    Promotion Only Step Considered Reversible
  5. Mechanism by which Malignant Cells Establish Selective Growth Advantage
    • ~Autocrine Stimulation
    • ~Angiogenesis
    • ~Point Mutations
    • *Alteration of 1 or Fewer Nucleotide Base Pairs
    • ~Gene Amplification
    • *Duplication of Small Piece of Chromosome Over & Over Again
    • *^ Expression of Oncogene or D-Resistent Genes
    • ~Gene Silencing
    • *Epigenetic Mechanism that Doesn't Require Mutations or Changes in DNA Sequence
    • *Silenced Region can Spread & Shut Off previously Active genes
    • *Associated w/ Methylation of both DNA & Associated Chromatin
  6. ~Autocrine Stimulation
    • *Proliferation w/o External Growth Signals
    • *Secret GF to Stimulate Growth (ex. VEGF)
    • *Upregulation of GFR (ex. HER2/neu, EGFR, etc.)
    • *Constitutive Activation of Cell Signal Cascades (ex. Ras)
  7. Angiogenesis
    • Tumors promote own Growth & Metastasis
    • *Functioning Vascular Supply is Essential for Solid Tumor Growth
    • *Initiation of Angiogenesis Results in Tumor Growth Metastaes & Progression
  8. Types of Oncogenes & their Biological Function
    • ~GF
    • ~Tyrosine Kinase R
    • ~TF
    • ~ + More
  9. Oncogenes
    • Ex: BCR-ABL
    • Gene w/ Potential to Cause Cancer
    • In Non-Mutant State: Direct Synthesis of Proteins that Regulate (Acccelerate) Cellular Proliferation
  10. Tumor-Suppressor Genes
    • Ex: p53, BRCA 1 & 2
    • "Anti-Oncogenes"
    • Normal State: Encode Proteins that (-) Regulate Proliferation (Cell Growth) & Prevent Mutations
    • Slow Cell Cycle
    • Requires 2 Hits to be Inactivated
  11. Proto-Oncogenes
    • Ex: EGFR, RAS
    • Normal, Non-Mutant Oncogene
  12. Which of the Following is True Regarding Multi-Step Oncogenesis:
    A.) Initiation is a Reversible Process.
    B.) Promotion Directly Results in a Malignant Lesion.
    C.) Conversion Represents the Cell's 1st Genetic Change.
    D.) Progression Results in Invasion & Metastasis.
  13. Which of the Following Characteristics is Most Commonly Associated w/ a Benign Tumor?
    A.) Not Encapsulated
    B.) ^ Mitotic Index
    C.) Well Differentiated
    D.) Invades Local Tissues
  14. Urinary Bence-Jones Protein is a Tumor Marker produced by which of the Following Types of cancer?
    A.) Multiple Myeloma
    B.) Pancreatic Cancer
    C.) Breast Cancer
    D.) Colorectal Cancer
  15. Match Marker Names w/ Type of Cancer:
    1*Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
    2*Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
    3*Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA)
    4*Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (B-HCG)
    5* Urinary Bence-Jones Protein
    • Type of Cancer:
    • 1*Hepetic, Germ Cell
    • 2*GI, Pancreas, Lung, Breast, etc.
    • 3*Prostate
    • 4*Germ Cell
    • 5*Multiple Myeloma
Card Set:
Patho Final
2011-12-02 23:23:06
Cancer Malignant Benign

Biology of Cancer
Show Answers: