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2011-12-02 18:31:10

pregnancy anatomy 2
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  1. sperm and oocyte unite in
    uterine tube
  2. conceptus
    the developing of offspring
  3. gestation period
    time from last menstual period until birth (approx 290 days)
  4. embryo
    conceptus from fertilization through week 8
  5. fetus
    conceptus from week 9 through birth
  6. fertilization
    when the sperm's chromosomes combine with those of a secondary oocyte to form a fertilized egg (zygote)
  7. what encapsulates the oocyte during acrosomal reaction
    zona pellucida
  8. acrosomal reaction
    after sperm binds to zona pellucida and enzymes are released from sperm and are proteolytic - make a hole
  9. monospermy
    only one perm penetrates the oocyte
  10. blocks to polyspermy
    • -upon entry of a sperm, calcium surge causes cortical reaction (cortical granules release enzymes)
    • -enzymes destroy receptors on zona pellucida, so mher sperm ore sperm cannot bind
    • -zona pellucida hardens to block other sperm
  11. cleavage
    • -in fallopian tube heading to uterine cavity
    • -mitotic division of zygote
    • -first cleavage at 36 hours (2 daughter cells)
  12. uterine developement at day 3 or 4
    blastycyst (fluid filled sphere with a group of cells) enters uterine cavity
  13. trophoblast
    • cells that make up sphere (blastocyst)
    • -display factors that are immunosuppressive
    • -participate in placenta formation
    • -trophoblasts secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) which is the hormone of pregnancy
  14. HCG
    keeps corpus luteum functioning for first three months of pregnancy
  15. inner cell mass
    becomes the embryonic disc (embryo)
  16. implantation
    • -begins 6 to 7 days after ovulation
    • -trophoblast adhere to a site with the proper receptors and chemical signals
  17. trophoblasts profilerate and from 2 layers during implantation
    • -cytotrophoblast
    • -synctiotrophoblast
  18. HCG
    • -secreted by trophoblast cells, later the chorion
    • -keeps corpus luteum functioning for first 2-3 months of pregnancy which is later replaced by the placenta
  19. three primary germ layers of placenta form
    • ectoderm
    • endoderm
    • mesoderm
  20. ectoderm
    nervous system and skin
  21. endoderm
    epithelial lining of digestive, respitory, and urogenital system
  22. mesoderm
    forms all other tissues
  23. extraembryonic membranes
    • amnion
    • yolk sac
    • chorion
  24. first blood cells arise in
    yolk sac
  25. 2 umbilical arteries
    remove waste products from fetus to mom
  26. 1 umbilical vein
    transports oxygen and nutrition to the fetus
  27. relaxin
    • -secreted by placenta
    • -causes pelvic ligaments and the pubic symphysis to relax and ease birth passage
  28. HPL
    • -placental hormone
    • HPL (human placental lactogen) or HCS (human chorionic somatommatropin)
    • -maturation of breasts, fetal growth, and glucose sparing (shifting glucose to fat) in the mother
  29. human chorionic thyrotropin (HCT)
    • -placental hormone
    • -increases maternal metabolism
  30. parathyroid and vit d levels
    remain high throughout pregnancy
  31. CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)
    -has an effect on the fetal adrenal glands : to increase cortisol and increase DHEA production (placenta can use DHEA to manufacture estrogens)
  32. cortisol is necessary for
    • lung maturation
    • stimulates type 2 alveolar cells to secrete surfactant (decreases lung surface tension)
  33. the chorion villi (in placenta)
    • grow into blood filled sac
    • vascularized by umbilical arteries and veins
    • lie immersed in maternal blood
  34. parurition
    giving birth