Microbiology Chapter # 22
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Microbiology Chapter # 22
Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System
Haemophilus influenzae is prevented by
Meningococcal meningitidis is caused by
Pneumococcal pneumoniae is caused by
Listeriosis is caused by
Tetnus is caused by
Botulism is caused by
Leprosy is caused by
Polio (Poliomyelitis) is caused by
Rabies is caused by
Arboviral Encephalitis is caused by
What are the three most common causative agents of Bacterial Meningitis?
Which is more severe, bacterial or viral meningitis?
Why has the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis gone down?
What age group is Hib meningitis most common in?
Children < 4 yoa
What are the physical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae?
gram negative coccobacilli
What are the physical characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis?
gram negative diplococci
What is the causative microbe of Meningococcal meningitis?
Is there any prophylaxis against Meningococcal meningitis?
Yes, vaccines against the capsular serotypes that are not B are effective.
What are the S&S associated with Bacterial Meningitis?
Fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, convulsions, coma
What morphology and gram stain does Streptococcal pneumonia have?
gram positive diplococci
What age group is primarily affected by P. meningitis?
1 month - 4 yoa
Is there any prophylaxis for P. meningitis?
Too many serotypes to make a vaccine. Antibiotics may be used.
What is the causative microbe of Listeriosis?
Listeria monocytogenes (note that they primary affect macrophages which is a monocyte)
What was the noted primary non-living reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes?
refrigerated foods (deli meats and soft cheeses)
Is there any prophylaxis for L. monocytogenes?
What is the causative microbe of Tetanus?
What is the morphology and gram stain of C. tetani?
obligate anaerobic gram positive bacilli with subterminal endospores
What is the neurotoxin associated with Tetanus? What does this toxin cause?
Tetanospasmin; spasms and muscle contraction
What are the S&S for Tetanus infection?
lockjaw, opisthotonos. Death can result from respiratory failure
Is there any prophylaxis for Tetanus?
DTAP (diptheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccine. Also toxin immunoglobulins can be given
What age group does tetanus primarily affect?
people > 50 yoa
What is the causative microbe of botulism?
What are the S&S of botulism?
blurred vision, difficult swallowing, flaccid paralysis
Is there any treatment for botulism?
If given before the toxin attaches to the nerves, trivalent ABE antitoxin can save the patient.
What age group is most affected by botulism?
Infants. Do not give honey
What is another name for Leprosy?
What is the morphology and gram stain of C. botulinum?
oligate anaerobic gram positive bacillus with endospores
Is there treatment for Leprosy?
Yes, antibiotics can render patient non-contagious
How is Leprosy transmitted?
Prolonged and intimate contact
What is the more serious and disfiguring leprosy in patients without cell-mediated immunity?
lepromatous/progressive./multibacillary (lepromin test = negative)
What is the leprosy that occurs in people with normal immune systems?
Tuberculoid/neural form/paucibacillary (lepromin test = positive)
How is polio transmitted?
fecal contaminated water
What are the S&S of polio?
headache, sore throat, fever, few cases of paralysis
What is the formalin-inactivated virus of polio vaccine called?
What is the attenuated live polio virus vaccine called?
What is the polio vaccine for immunocompromised called?
What does Arboviruses stand for?
Arthropod borne viruses (mosquitoes)
What is the most severe form of Arboviral Encephalitis in the US?
Eastern equine encephalitis
What is the most common form of Arboviral Encephalitis in the US?
California enceph. - mild
What are S&S of west nile?
subclinical, mild, fatal encephalitis, polio-like paralysis
What is the treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans (fungal disease)?
Amphotericin B & flucytosine
What is the treatment for Naegleria meningoencephalitis?
Usually you die, but some have lived while on Ampotericin B.
What is African Trypanosomiasis?
Protozoan sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly
What is the drug that could be used to treat African Trypanosomiasis?