Microbiology Chapter # 22

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Microbiology Chapter # 22
2011-12-03 15:09:46
itsaji PHCC

Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System
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  1. Haemophilus influenzae is prevented by
    Hib Vaccine
  2. Meningococcal meningitidis is caused by
    Neisseria meningitidis
  3. Pneumococcal pneumoniae is caused by
    Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  4. Listeriosis is caused by
    Listeria monocytogenes
  5. Tetnus is caused by
    Clostridium tetani
  6. Botulism is caused by
    Clostridium Botulinum
  7. Leprosy is caused by
    Mycobacterium Leprae
  8. Polio (Poliomyelitis) is caused by
    Polio Virus
  9. Rabies is caused by
    Rabies Virus
  10. Arboviral Encephalitis is caused by
  11. What are the three most common causative agents of Bacterial Meningitis?
    • Streptococcus pneumonia
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • H. influenzae
  12. Which is more severe, bacterial or viral meningitis?
  13. Why has the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis gone down?
  14. What age group is Hib meningitis most common in?
    Children < 4 yoa
  15. What are the physical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae?
    gram negative coccobacilli
  16. What are the physical characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis?
    gram negative diplococci
  17. What is the causative microbe of Meningococcal meningitis?
    Neisseria meningitidis
  18. Is there any prophylaxis against Meningococcal meningitis?
    Yes, vaccines against the capsular serotypes that are not B are effective.
  19. What are the S&S associated with Bacterial Meningitis?
    Fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, convulsions, coma
  20. What morphology and gram stain does Streptococcal pneumonia have?
    gram positive diplococci
  21. What age group is primarily affected by P. meningitis?
    1 month - 4 yoa
  22. Is there any prophylaxis for P. meningitis?
    Too many serotypes to make a vaccine. Antibiotics may be used.
  23. What is the causative microbe of Listeriosis?
    Listeria monocytogenes (note that they primary affect macrophages which is a monocyte)
  24. What was the noted primary non-living reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes?
    refrigerated foods (deli meats and soft cheeses)
  25. Is there any prophylaxis for L. monocytogenes?
    Bacteriophage spray
  26. What is the causative microbe of Tetanus?
    Clostridium tetani
  27. What is the morphology and gram stain of C. tetani?
    obligate anaerobic gram positive bacilli with subterminal endospores
  28. What is the neurotoxin associated with Tetanus? What does this toxin cause?
    Tetanospasmin; spasms and muscle contraction
  29. What are the S&S for Tetanus infection?
    lockjaw, opisthotonos. Death can result from respiratory failure
  30. Is there any prophylaxis for Tetanus?
    DTAP (diptheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccine. Also toxin immunoglobulins can be given
  31. What age group does tetanus primarily affect?
    people > 50 yoa
  32. What is the causative microbe of botulism?
    Clostridium botulinum
  33. What are the S&S of botulism?
    blurred vision, difficult swallowing, flaccid paralysis
  34. Is there any treatment for botulism?
    If given before the toxin attaches to the nerves, trivalent ABE antitoxin can save the patient.
  35. What age group is most affected by botulism?
    Infants. Do not give honey
  36. What is another name for Leprosy?
    Hansen's disease
  37. What is the morphology and gram stain of C. botulinum?
    oligate anaerobic gram positive bacillus with endospores
  38. Is there treatment for Leprosy?
    Yes, antibiotics can render patient non-contagious
  39. How is Leprosy transmitted?
    Prolonged and intimate contact
  40. What is the more serious and disfiguring leprosy in patients without cell-mediated immunity?
    lepromatous/progressive./multibacillary (lepromin test = negative)
  41. What is the leprosy that occurs in people with normal immune systems?
    Tuberculoid/neural form/paucibacillary (lepromin test = positive)
  42. How is polio transmitted?
    fecal contaminated water
  43. What are the S&S of polio?
    headache, sore throat, fever, few cases of paralysis
  44. What is the formalin-inactivated virus of polio vaccine called?
    Salk IPV
  45. What is the attenuated live polio virus vaccine called?
    Salk OPV
  46. What is the polio vaccine for immunocompromised called?
  47. What does Arboviruses stand for?
    Arthropod borne viruses (mosquitoes)
  48. What is the most severe form of Arboviral Encephalitis in the US?
    Eastern equine encephalitis
  49. What is the most common form of Arboviral Encephalitis in the US?
    California enceph. - mild
  50. What are S&S of west nile?
    subclinical, mild, fatal encephalitis, polio-like paralysis
  51. What is the treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans (fungal disease)?
    Amphotericin B & flucytosine
  52. What is the treatment for Naegleria meningoencephalitis?
    Usually you die, but some have lived while on Ampotericin B.
  53. What is African Trypanosomiasis?
    Protozoan sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly
  54. What is the drug that could be used to treat African Trypanosomiasis?