Microbiology Chapter # 25

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Microbiology Chapter # 25
2011-12-02 22:45:58
itsaji PHCC

Diseases of Digestive System
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  1. What organism is primarily responsible for dental caries?
    Streptococcus mutans
  2. What organism is primarily responsible for periodontal disease?
    Porphyromonas spp.
  3. What organism is responsible for Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?
    Prevotella intermedia
  4. What term describes when a pathogen enters the GI tract and multiples?
  5. What term describes when the ingestion of a preformed toxin causes disease?
  6. What term describes sever diarrhea accompanied by blood or mucous?
  7. What type of food poising often occurs on sugary creamy foods?
    Staphylococcus Food poising or Staphylococcal enterotoxicosis (enterotoxin by S. aureus causes intoxication)
  8. What is Shingellosis called?
    Bacillary dysentery
  9. What is the most common Shigella in the US that causes mild diarrhea?
    Shingella sonnei
  10. What is the the therapy for Shigella dysenteriae?
    Oral rehydration, antibiotic
  11. What disease does S. typhimurium and S. enteritica cause?
    Salmonellosis or Salmonella gastroeneteritis
  12. What is the treatment for Salmonellosis?
    oral rehydration
  13. What microbe causes Typhoid fever?
    Salmonella typhi
  14. How is Salmonella typhi transmitted?
    Fecal-oral, only person to person
  15. What is the treatment for Typhoid fever?
    Antibiotics, oral rehydration
  16. What is the microbe that causes Cholera?
    Vibrio cholerae (gram neg that makes exotoxin "cholera toxin")
  17. What are the signs of cholera?
    Rice water diarrhea, violent vomiting, NO FEVER usually
  18. What is the treatment for cholera?
    Replacement of fluids and electrolytes
  19. What microbes can cause Traveler's diarrhea?
    Shigella, Campylobacter, protozoans, and viruses (rota and noro)
  20. What extra characteristics do pathogenic E coli normally have?
    Produce toxins and have specialized fimbriae
  21. What does EHEC stand for?
    Enterohemorrhagic E Coli
  22. What does STEC stand for?
    Shiga-toxin E Coli
  23. What is the Serotype of E Coli found in the US that produces the Shiga toxin?
  24. What is a causative agent of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?
    0157:H7 E coli. Blood is found in urine, kidney failure occurs due to toxin
  25. What is the organism found in most retail chicken that can cause gastroenteritis?
    Campylobacter spp
  26. What microbe is associated with peptic ulcers?
    Helicobacter pylori
  27. What group is found to be susceptible to cholera and H. pylori?
    Blood group O
  28. What is the treatment for H pylori?
    Antibiotics with bismuth subsalicylate
  29. What is the treatment for C. difficile?
  30. What are the S&S for Clostridium difficile?
    From mild diarrhea to life-threatening colitis with ulceration
  31. What are the descriptive characteristics of Clostridium difficile?
    Gram pos bacillus, endospore forming, anaerobe, exotoxin forming
  32. What are the S&S for Hep A?
    Vary; malaise, nausea, diarrhea, fever, chills, jaundice, or asymptomatic
  33. What family is Hep A in?
  34. How is Hep A transmitted?
    Fecal oral
  35. Does Hep A have a chronic, acute, or both stages?
    Only acute
  36. Is there prophylaxis for Hep A and if so what?
    Yes, vaccine and IgM antibodies
  37. What family is Hep B in?
    Hepadnaviridae (uses reverse transcriptase)
  38. How is Hep B transmitted?
    Parentally/sexual contact
  39. Does Hep B have a chronic phase?
    Yes, increase liver cancer occurrence by 200%
  40. Does Hep B have prophylaxis?
    Yes, genetically made vaccine (in yeast) and Hep B IgM antibodies
  41. What is the family for Hep C?
  42. What is the method of transmission for Hep C?
    Parentally/Body fluids
  43. Does Hep C have prophylaxis?
    No, but can be treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribivirn
  44. Does Hep C have a chronic phase?
  45. What is the family for Hep D?
  46. What is the method of transmission for Hep D?
    Parentally, requires coinfection with Hep B
  47. Does Hep D have a chronic phase?
    It may. Usually very severe disesase with high mortality rate
  48. Does Hep D have prophylaxis?
    Yes, Hep B vaccine or IgM of HBV
  49. What is the family of Hep E?
  50. What is the method of transmission for Hep E?
  51. Does Hep E have a chronic phase?
  52. Does Hep E have prophylaxis?
    Yes, IgM antibodies and HAV vaccine
  53. What are the usual causative microbes of Viral gastroenteritis?
    Noroviruses and rotaviruses
  54. What is the treatment for viral gastroenteritis?
    Oral rehydration
  55. What are the two protozoan disease of the GI mentioned in ch 25?
    Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis
  56. What is the causative microbe in Giardiasis?
    Giardia lambila
  57. What is the causative microbe in Cryptosporidiosis?
    Cryptosporidium spp.
  58. What are the S&S for Giardiasis?
    Prolonged diarrhea, malaise, weight loss, nausea, flatulense, H2s odor on breath
  59. What is the method of transmission for Giardiasis?
    contaminated water
  60. What is the treatment for Giardia or Cryptosporidium?
    Nitrazoxanide (Alina)
  61. What is the method of transmission for Cryptosporidiosis?
    contaminated water
  62. What is name for a beef tapeworm?
    Taenia saginata
  63. What is the name for a pork tapeworm?
    Taenia solium
  64. Is Taenia solium transmitted as a larvae or a egg?
    Pork tapeworm is transmitted as an egg. Once ingested it develops into larvae in human tissues such as eye or CNS
  65. Are Taenia saginata and fish tapeworms transmitted as larvae or eggs?
    Beef tapeworms and fish tapeworms are transmitted as larvae in undercooked meats. The become an egg producing adult in the intestine
  66. What is the treatment for tapeworms?
    Tapeworms are treated with antihelminthics (praziquantel, albendazole) and may require surgery for neurocysticercosis
  67. What is Ascariasis?
    Helminthic disease of Ascaris - a foot long worm that occurs after ingesting eggs from fecal matter. Treatment: Mebendazole
  68. How is hookworm transmitted?
    Can be from walking around outside barefoot. Treatment:mebendazole
  69. Describe a pinworm
    Its an enterobius - a small worm that lays eggs around the anus at night. Can be treated with Pyrantel pamoate
  70. What is the causative microbe of Trichinellosis/Trichinosis?
    Trichinella spiralis
  71. What is the treatment for Trichinellosis?
    Antihelminthics(mebendazole) & corticosteroids
  72. How is Trichinella spiralis transmitted?
    Rare pork. Can cause larvae in muscle tissue and may be fatal in large infections
  73. What tissue does mumps effect?
    Parotid glands. Can cause inflammation of testes.
  74. Is there any prophylaxis for mumps?
    Yes, MMR vaccine
  75. What is the family for mumps?
  76. What is the causative agent for cyclospora diarrhea?
    Cyclospora cayetanensis
  77. How is cyclospora cayetanensis transmitted?
    Contaminated water, berries, uncooked food
  78. What is the treatment for cyclospora diarrhea?
    Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
  79. What is the causative agent of Ergot poisoning?
    Claviceps Purpurea (causes hallucinations)
  80. What is the treatment for Ergot poisoning?
  81. What is the method of transmission of Ergot Poisoning?
    Mycotoxin produced by fungus on grains
  82. What is the causative agent of Aflatoxin poisoning?
    aspergillus flavus (can cause liver cirrhosis)
  83. What is the treatment for Aflatoxin poisoning?
  84. What is the method of transmission of Aflatoxin poisoning?
    Mycotoxin produced by fungus on food