Chapter 15 APUSH

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  1. Unitarians
    a religious group that began in New England in the first half of the 19th century, it included a belief that perfection was a process of character building in which the individual learned to model behavior on that of Jesus, a very positive view of human nature, focused on reason and intellect, believed that God was one
  2. Second Great Awakening
    a religious movement in America in the first half of the 19th century, it included a belief that people had free will to avoid sin and move toward a more perfected life, an emotion-based conversion experience was desired
  3. camp meetings
    religious meetings in specific places for an extended period of time, attendees heard preachers give sermons on repentance and change and heard convents describe their experiences
  4. Millerites/Adventists
    followers of the Wm. Miller, they believed Christ would return to earth on 10/22/44 and went out to meet him; the movement continued even after the end did not come
  5. burned-over district
    an area of western NY from which many religious revivals started and were preached beginning in the 1820s; also from this area several religions new to America were begun or expanded
  6. Mormons
    members of the church founded by Joseph Smith and his associates in 1830
  7. free public schools
    tax-supported education for everyone; there is a public benefit to educating all
  8. Troy Female Seminary/ Mt Holyoke Seminary
    first secondary schools to educate women
  9. Oberlin College
    first college to admit women, 1837; had also asmitted black Americans previously
  10. lyceums
    traveling lecturers who spoke in towns big and small about a variety of topics
  11. N. American Review/ Gode's Lady's Book
    magazines for the truly American outlook
  12. American Temperance Society
    founded in 1826 in Boston by evangelical Protestants, it was the first national anti-alcohol organization the "Cold Water Army"
  13. temperance
    a 19th century reform movement that focused on drinking in moderation or the total abstinence from alcoholic beverages, efforts were based on the negative impact that alcohol had on the family
  14. Seneca Falls Convention
    a womens' rights convention held in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848
  15. Declaration of Sentiments
    a document which came out of the Seneca Falls Convention; modeled on the Declaration of Independence, it listed rights women should have including the suffrage
  16. New Harmony, Indiana
    a utopian community found in 1825 in Indiana by Robert Owen, he believed society could be improvedby improving the conditions of the worker, Owenism believed that human character was formed by environment and that cooperation was superior to competition
  17. Brook Farm, Massachusetts
    a utopian community founded by a group of transcendentalists in Massachusetts, they believed in working together by day and engaging in uplifting discussion in the evenings, it was both a utopian model and a retreat; severak notable transcendentalist writers are associated with it
  18. Oneida Community
    a utopian community in western NY, founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848, who believed in free love and communal ownership of property
  19. The Shakers
    a religious movement of the first half of the 19th century, led by Mother Ann Lee, the name came from a convulsive religious dance that was a part of their ceremony, followers left society to live in communities that floowed celibacy and disciplined rule
  20. The Dial
    a movement in the first half of the 19th century in which people joined communities designed to be perfect societies in hopes of living together in harmony
  21. American Peace Society
    this war on war, organized in 1828
  22. utopian communities
    the literary magazine of Brook Farm
  23. Hudson River School
    a "school" of American art which emphasized landscapes and the beauty of America
  24. Transcendentalism
    a philosophical and literary movement of the 19th century. Transcendentalists believ that truth transcends the body through the senses, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were two of the more famous transcendentalists
  25. Peter Cartwright
    "circuit riding" Methodist preacher, he called upon sinners to repent
  26. Charles Grandison Finney
    the most famous of the Revivalist preachers, preached in the late 1820s and 1830s along the Erie Canal in NY, he spoke with emotion, hearers cried out and burst into tears
  27. William Miller
    leader of the Millerites, believed Christ was coming soon
  28. Joseph Smith
    in 1847, he led the Mormons from II to the edge of the Great Salt Lake in Spanish territory
  29. Brigham Young
    founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), completed his translation of the Book of Mormon in 1827, announced his intent to run for President in 1844, mudered in IL by a mob
  30. Horace Mann
    becoming the first secretary of state board of education in Massachusetts in 1837, he improved schools by extending the school year,standarizing textbooks, grading children against their age peers and training better teachers
  31. Noah Webster
    born in Conneticut, educateed at Yale, Llived 1758-1843, called "Schoolmaster of the Republic." Wrote reading primers and texts for school use. He was the most famous for his dictionar, first published in 1828, which standarized the English language in America
  32. William H. McGruffey
    A teacher-preacher from Ohio, he published grade-school reading books in the 1830s, the readers gave lessons of morality, patriotism and idealism, millions were sold
  33. Emma Willard
    she established Troy Female Seminary in Troy, NY in 1821
  34. Mary Lyon
    she established Mount Holyoke Seminary for women in 1837 in Massachusetts
  35. Dorothea Dix
    a New England teacher and author who spoke against the inhumane treatment of insane prisoners, ca 1830's. People who suffered from insanity were treated worse than normal criminals. She traveled over 60,000 miles in 8 years gathering information for her reports, reports that brought about changes in treatment, and also the concept that insanity was a disease of the mind, not a willfully perverse act by an individual
  36. Neal Dow
    father of prohibition, he was the sponsor of the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor in Maine he was concerned about the negative effect if alcohol on the person and on the worker
  37. Sylvester Graham
    the first physician to write about the negative impacts of alcoholism; he also encourage Americans to have better diets including eating whole wheat crackers.
  38. Catherine Beecher
    as schools and teaching improved in the 1840s, she encourage women to get an education and to enter teaching as a respectable vocation for women
  39. Lucretia Mott
    one of the organizers of the Seneca Falls Convention, she gave the opening and closing addresses
  40. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    one of the organizers of the Seneca Falls Convention, she modeled the Declaration of Sentiments on the Declaration of Independence
  41. Susan B. Anthony
    raised a Quaker, she exposed herself to garbage and vulgar epithets in her lectures for women's rights, progressive women joined the "Susy Bs"
  42. Amelia Bloomer
    worked for reform in women's clothing, she advocated less restrictive clothing for women- a short skirt with "Turkish trousers"
  43. Elizabeth Blackwell
    the first female graduate of a medical college, first female doctor in the US
  44. Margaret Fuller
    editor of the Transcendentalist magazine, The Dial
  45. Lucy Stone
    an advocate for women's rights, she began her public career as an abolitionist, she kept her name after her marriage, worked for marriage reform
  46. Robert Owen
    founder of the utopia New Harmony in IN in 1825, he sought to better society by bettering the lives of his workers
  47. John Humphrey Noyes
    founder of the utopia Oneirda in western NY in 1848, he believed in free love and communities based on communism
  48. Mother Ann Lee
    the leader of the Shakers, she arrived in America in 1774 and establish a community in New Lebanon, NY; she insisted her followers be celibate and believed the Second Coming was imminent
  49. John J. Audubon
    painter of birds, author/ illustrator of Birds of America
  50. Gilbert Stuart
    Rhode Island painter of many picture sof George Washington
  51. Charles Wilson Peale
    Maryland painter of many pictures of George Washinton, father of many painting children
  52. John Trumbull
    painter who captured scenes of the American revolution on large canvases
  53. Stephen Foster
    composer of American folk music, captured the feel of Negro spirituals
  54. Washington Irving
    He published Knickerbockers History if New York in 1809 which had interesting caricatures of the Dutch. The Sketch Book, published in 1819-1820, was an immediate success. This book made him world renown. The Sketch Book was influenced by both American and English themes, and therefore popular in the Old and New World
  55. James Fenimore Cooper
    Writer who lived in New York in 1789-1851. Historical significance: first novelist to gain world fame and make New World themes respectable
  56. William Cullen Bryant
    He was born in Cunningham, Mass. on Nov. 3, 1794. H e was a journalist, literary critic, public speaker, and the first significant poet in 19th century American Literature. He supported Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, defended the right of workers to strike, spoke out against slavery, proposed a central park for the city, helped to organize the Republican parry, and fought the Tweed ring
  57. Henry David Thoreau
    He was a poet, a mystic, a transcendentalist, a nonconformist, and a close friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson. He condemned government for supporting slavery and was jailed when he refused to pay his Mass. poll tax. He is well known for his novel about the two years of simple living he spent on the edge of Walden Pond called "Walden", Or Life in the Woods. This novel furthered many idealistic thoughts. He was a great transcendentalist writer who not only wrote many great things, but who also encourage by his writings, Mahatma Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr. to react toward things as they did.
  58. Walt Whitman
    He was a poet who lived in brooklyn from 1819-1892. His most famoud collection of poems entitled Leaves of Grass gained from the title "Poet Laureate of Democracy"
  59. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
    American poet and professor of modern languages ar Harvard. During a period which was dominated in the literary field by transcendentalists, he was an urbane poet who catered to the upper classes abd the more educated of the citizens. He was also popular in Europe, and is the only American poet to have a bust in Westminster Abbey
  60. John Greenlead Whittier
    He was insulted and stoned for writing against slaveru. He rose the awareness of the people of America about slavery through his poems
  61. James Russell Lowell
    He was an American poet, essayist, diplomat, editor, and literary critic. He is remembered for his political satire, especially in the Billow Papers
  62. Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
    An anatomy teacher at Harvard Medical School who was regarded as a prominent poet, essayist, novelist, lecturer and wit from 1809-1894. Poem "the Last Leaf" in honor of the last "white Indian" at the Boston Tea Party, which really applied to himself
  63. Louisa May Alcott
    she was the source of financial secuirty for her family, her father was a philosopher not a wage earner, her book Little Women is for the most part autobiographical
  64. Emily Dickinson
    she lived all of her life as a recluse in Amherst, MA but created her own world in her poems, she was not published during her lifetime
  65. Edgar Allan Poe
    He lived from 1809-1849 and was cursed with hunger, cold, and poverty and debt. He was orphaned as a child and when he married his fourteen year old wife, she died of tuberculosis. He wrote books that deal with the ghostly and ghastly such as "The Fall of the House of Usher"
  66. Nathaniel Hawthorne
    He wrote the Scarlett Letter in 1850. This was his masterpiece. He also wrote The Marble Faun. Many of his workers had early American themes. The Scarlett Letter is about a woman who commits adultery in a Puritan village. His upbringing was heavily influenced by his puritan ancestors
  67. Herman Melville
    He was an author born in New York in 1819. He was uneducated and an orphan. He served eighteen monthes as whales. These advernturesome years served as a major part in his writing. Melvillen wrote Moby Dick in 1851 which was much less popular than his tales of the South seas.
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Chapter 15 APUSH

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