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  1. hormone secreted in the anter pit. glan during hypoglycemia(decreased blood fatty acids, incr. blood amino acids, deep sleep)
    Produces increase in uptake of a.a.=increased protein synthesis=growth/maintence
    Also causes lipolysis and gluconeogenesis
    Growth Hormone, Somatotropin, GH
  2. The genereation of Glucose from other sources(not diet)
  3. Breaking down lipids
  4. stimulated protein synthesis, increa lipolysis, and decreased use of glucose for ATP, promoting hyperglycemia
    diabetogenic effect
  5. hormone affecting every cell that increases metabolic rate when pituitary secretes TSH
    (T3 and T4)
    which incre carbohydrate catabolism, incre fat catabolism, incre protein anabolism
  6. genetic business of meiosis of a sperm
    Spermatogonium is target cell of FSH
  7. in FSH Sertolli cells turn parts of sperm into whole sperm bodies in
  8. put sprem together inFSH
    Sertoli cells
  9. target cells of FSH
    Sertoli cells, spermatogonium, in f are follicles that producee eggs
  10. increases sperm formation, increase sertoli cells, increa inhibin/estrogen, stimulates follicle development of ovaries
    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  11. comes out of testes in blood, feedsback onto system and turns off gonadotropic releasing factor
  12. turned on by hypothalamus for FSH
    gonadotropic RF
  13. Interstitial cell stimulating hormone
    • the male leutinizing hormone that is caused by decreased levels of testosterone.
    • use gonadotropinRF to secrete LH from the ant pit gland and stimulates testosterone in testes
  14. in testes this stimulates testosterone secretion due to LH
    interstitial cells of Leydig
  15. directly stimulates ovulation
  16. as a result of LH, estrogen levels will drop until ____ is formed to get the uterus ready for implantation
    corpus luteum
  17. hormone stimulated by incre stress, hypothal secretes CorticotropinRF(C-RF) which causes incre glucocorticoid secretion making u more alert, raising BP, incre blood glucose and then stress is decreased
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH)
  18. Targer cells of ACTH
    adrenal cortex glucocorticoid
  19. target cells of prolactin
    mammary glands
  20. This hormone is secreted after a woman has given birth due to a neuroendocrine reflex and decreased blood estrogen from pasing a placenta
  21. not really an endocrine gland in a strict sense cux the hormones are actually syntheaized by neurons in the hypothalamus
    posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis)
  22. is the axon connection that connects the posterior pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
    Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
  23. synaptic vessicles in the post pit gland are filled with
    oxytocin or ADH
  24. neuroglial cells of post pit gland
  25. works by postivie feedback, produces milk let downn or contraction of uterine smooth muscle during labor
  26. myoepithilial cells
    target cells of oxytocin on mammary gland that produce milk secretion
  27. stimulates ADH
    increased extracellular fluid osmolarity
  28. osmoreceptors
    hypothalamic neurosecretory cells maintain how hydrated body fluids are
  29. too little ADH secretion. kidneys conserve less water than normal and daily urine output it by 10-fold
    Diabetes insipidus
  30. effects are increa water reabsorption by kidney tuble cells and
    increas thirst
    Post pit gland secretion of Antidiuretic hormone ADH(vasopressin)
  31. ADH causes
    increased extracellular fluid volume and therefore decreased body osmolarity
  32. Spherical sac structures consisting the thyroid gland
  33. epithilium of a follicle in thyroid gland
    follicular cell
  34. made by follicular cell and stored inside follicle
  35. in between follicles in small nests and produce calcitonin/have receptors that measure ca in the extracellular fluid
    Parafollicular cells (C-cells)
  36. Follicular cells secrete
    T3 and T4 (thyroxin)
  37. connects two lobes of thyroid gland
  38. Three steps in Thyroid hormone secretion
    • 1. thryoglobulin and tryosine form glycoproteins and secrete into center of follicle'
    • 2. iodide ions from blood iodinate tryosine forming colloid
    • 3.TSH causes removal of colloid from follicle center and iodinated tryrosine cleaves
    • 4. Follicular cells secrete T3T4 into extracellular space to diffuse into blood
  39. Thyroxin stimulates what in effort to regulate metabolic processess
    • increased carbohydrate catabolism
    • increa fat catabolism
    • increa protein anabolism
    • raises BMR
    • and body temp
  40. caloriogenic effect
    raising body temp
  41. Calcitonin works to decrease calcium by
    • inhibiting osteoclasts
    • stimulating osteogenesis
    • and decreasing ca reasbsorption into kidneys(pee it out)
  42. hypercalcemia stimulate what of the thyriod gland which will secrete what?
    parafollicular cells, calcitonin
  43. target cells of calcitonin
    osteoblasts, kidney tubules
  44. secrete PTH during hypocalcemia
    measure intersitial levels of ca
    cheif cells
  45. all hormones produced by adrenal cortex are
  46. in the adrenal gland the cortex has these hormones and the medulla has
    steroids, catecholamines
  47. produced by the outermost zone of adrenal cortex (zone glomerulosa)
  48. primary minealcorticoid?
  49. works to control water and electrolyte balance by controlling K and NA concentrations
  50. HyperKalemia
    • too much potassium
    • get rid of K through kidneys
  51. rennin angio-tension system
    • times of dehydration, sodium diffic, system secretes aldosterone.
    • Kidneys secrete renin when blood vol is decreased, renin converts protein to angiotensionII which stimulates Aldosterone secretion and therefore incre sodium reabsortion cuz of loss of K and blood vol/pressure incres
  52. where the glucocorticoids are produced
    Zone Fasiculata of adrenal cortex
  53. Promote normal metabolism(make glucose avaliable)
    resist stress
  54. Gonadocorticoids are of the
    • zone reticularis of the adrenal cortex
    • sex steroids
    • androgens and estrogens
  55. receptors for glucose that measure blood glucose levels and secete glucagon when hypoglycemic
    alpha cells
  56. alpha cells secrete____
    Beta cells secrete_____
    • glucagon
    • Insulin
  57. alpha cells are stimulated to secrete glucagon under conditions of
  58. glycogenolysis
    glycogen breakdown
  59. gluconeogenesis
    formation of new glucose from other sources such as amino acids
  60. Glucagon raises blood glucose by
    • incre glycogenolysis
    • increa gluconeogenesis
  61. alpha cell are located in the
    islets of langerhans in pancreas
  62. Beta cells of monitor for conditions of
  63. when blood glucose is hyperglycemic, insulin is secreted by
    beta cells in pancreas
  64. how does insuline decre blood glucose?
    • increa glycogenesis
    • decre glycogenolysis
    • decre gluconeogensis
    • incre lipogenesis- get fat
  65. diabetes mellitus
    • honey urine
    • high glucose
    • pee glucose
    • no beta beta cells
  66. General adaptation syndrome
    alarm, resistence, exhaustion
  67. alarm phase
    • hypthalamus incre leading to general sympthathetic action of adrenal medulla
    • which then leads to secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine ForF
  68. consevation of glucose
    elevation of blood glucose level
    decre imflammatory response
    conserve NA and H20
    incre blood pressure
    Hormones cause these effects in the Resistance phase
  69. In the exhaustion phase, multisystem collapse may happy due to
    • depressed immune system
    • failure of electrolyte balance
    • cardiac/ renal failure
    • lipid reserve exhaustion
    • net result = death
Card Set
Hormones of endocrine system
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