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  1. Plasma and its composition
    • Liquid portion of blood 55%
    • Food, salts and O2 (3%) are dissolved within
    • Wastes are dissolved and transported to excretory organs
    • Hormones and other regulatory chemicals
  2. Formed elements
    Different types of cells and cell fragments suspended in plasma
  3. Properties of Blood
    • Adults have 4 - 6 L
    • 7 - 9% of total body weight
    • PH 7.35 - 7.45
    • Can be stored for 6 weeks
  4. Blood donation
    • Blood must be "cross-matched" and "typed"
    • Blood can only be stored for 6 weeks
  5. Antibody
    • substance that reacts with the antigen that stimulated its formation
    • causes their target antigen to stick together in clusters (agglutinate)
  6. Antigen
    • Substance that stimulates the body to make antibodies
    • Usually a foreign protein
  7. ABO system
    • 1. Type A blood: A antigens; contains anti-B antibodies
    • 2. Type B blood: B antigens; contains anti-A antibodies
    • 3. Type AB blood: A and B antigens; contains no antibodies (Universal recipient)
    • 4. Type O blood: No antigens; contains anti-A and and anti- B antibodies (Universal donor)
  8. RH system
    • RH factor is an antigen
    • Persons with RH negative blood develop antibodies against RH positive blood
    • RH antibodies do not develop until 1st exposure
    • Babies with RH positive blood and an RN negative mom risk erythroblastosis fetalis
    • RhoGAM stops the mother's body from forming anit-RH antibodies
  9. Plasma proteins
    • Albumin: retain water in blood
    • Globulin: antibodies that protect us from infection
    • fibrinogen: needed for blood clots
    • prothrombin: needed for blood clots
  10. Serum
    • Plasma minus its clotting factors (fibrinogen and prothrombin)
    • Contains antibodies
  11. Forced elements
    • Red blood cells aka erythrocytes
    • White blood cells aka leukocytes
    • Platelets or thrombocytes
  12. Myeloid tissue
    • aka red bone marrow
    • Creates new red blood cells (hematopoiesis)
    • found in sternum, ribs and hip bones; vertebrae, clavicles and cranial bones
  13. Lymphatic tissue
    • creates white blood cells (lymphocytes and monocytes)
    • found in lymph nodes, thymus and spleen
  14. Causes of blood disease
    • Disorders of formed elements
    • Failure of myeloid and lymphatic tissues
    • Could be genetic, viral infection, cancer, radiation or toxic chemicals
  15. Aspiration Biopsy Cytology
    • sample of myeloid tissue removed from illiac crest or sternum
    • sample is tested to confirm or reject a diagnosis
  16. Bone marrow transplant
    • Myeloid tissue from a compatible donor is introduced intravenously to a patient
    • hematopoietic stem cells may also be infused
  17. Red blood cells (RBCs)
    • aka Erythrocytes
    • no nucleus or cytoplasmic organelles
    • filled with hemoglobin
    • exchanges O2 and CO2 with blood and body cells
    • Helps maintain acid-base balance
    • Normal range of 4.2 - 6.2 million per mm3
  18. Hemoglobin
    • red pigment in red blood cells
    • combines with O2 to form oxyhemoglobin (carries 97% of O2 for cells)
    • combines with CO2 to form carbaminohemoglobin (carries 20% of CO2)
  19. Complete blood cell count (CBC)
    • battery of tests to measure blood components
    • routine aspect of physical exams
  20. Hematocrit (Packed Cell Volume/PVC)
    percentage of whole blood that is RBC
  21. Buffy coat
    Layer of white blood cells and platelets between plasma and RBCs after blood has been centrifuged
  22. Polycythemia
    • blood disorder characterized by dramatic increase in RBC numbers
    • blood viscosity is increased
    • Signs and symptoms: hypertension, coagulation problems and hemorrhaging
    • Treatment: blood removal, irradiation of bone marrow and chemo to suppress RBC production
  23. Anemia
    • caused by inadequate RBCs, lack of hemoglobin, defective hemoglobin
    • heart and respiratory rates are increased to compensate
  24. Hemorrhagic anemia
    decrease in RBC due to acute or chronic blood loss
  25. Aplastic anemia
    • Abnormally low RBC counts and destruction of bone marrow
    • related to exposure to toxic chems (benzene, mercury), irradiation and certain drugs (chloramphenicol)
  26. Deficiency anemia
    • inadequate supply of a substance; usually iron or B vitamin
    • Pernicious anemia: dietary deficiency of B12
    • Folate deficiency anemia: Folic acid (B9); common among alcoholics and malnourished
    • Iron deficiency anemia: lack of iron in diet; most common nutritional deficiency
  27. Hemolytic anemias
    • decreacsed RBC life span caused by an increased rate of destruction
    • Sickle cell anemia: genetic disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin
    • Thalassemia: production of abnormal hemoglobin and microcytic (small) RBC that are short lived
  28. White blood cells (Leukocytes)
    • Two types: granulocytes and agranulocytes
    • fights infection
  29. Leokopenia
    low WBC count
  30. Leukocytosis
    High WBC count
  31. Differential WBC count
    proportions of each WBC is reported within the WBC count
  32. Neutrophil
    • Aka phagocyte
    • granulocyte
    • engulfs microorganisms through phagocytosis
  33. Eosinophils
    • granulocyte
    • protects against parasites and prasitic worms
  34. Basophils
    • granulocyte
    • secretes histamine
    • produce the anticoagulant heparin
  35. Monocytes
    • biggest leukocyte
    • agranulocyte
    • defend by phagocytosis
    • becomes a macrophage after leaving the blood stream
  36. Lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes secrete antibodies
    • T lymphocytes attack bacteria and cer directly
    • Plama cells are B lymphocytes found in bone marrow cancer
  37. White blood cell disorders
    • Lymphoid neoplasms
    • Myeloid neoplasms
  38. Multiple myeloma
    cancer of of mature B lymphocytes (plasma cells)
  39. Leukemia
    • blood cancers that affect WBC
    • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
    • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
    • Chronic myeloid leukemia (MCL)
    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  40. Platelets
    essential in blood clotting
  41. Thrombus
    stationary blood clot
  42. Embolus
    moving blood clot
Card Set:
2011-12-04 22:02:36

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