Card Set Information
what dies the thyroid hormone produce?
Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) and calcitonin
What is the primary role of the thyroid hormones?
Control rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation
What is the role of calcitonin?
Decreases blood calcium levels by depositing calcium into the bones (antagonist to parathyroid glands)
What cells produce calcitonin?
What are the sacs that contain T3 and T4 called?
What are T3 and T4 stored as?
What hormone do the parathyroid glands secrete?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What is the role of PTH?
Increases blood calcium by releasing calcium from the bone matrix and increases reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys
What cells produce PTH?
What hormones does the thymus produce?
Thymosin and thymopoietin
What is the function if the thymus?
Produces hormones related to maturation and specialization of T cells
What gland has both endocrine and exocrine abilities?
What does the pancreas produce?
Digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
What is the main role of the pancreas?
Regulate blood sugar levels
What stimulates the release of insulin?
Elevated blood glucose levels
Hyposecretion of insulin causes what disease?
Hypersecretion of insulin causes what?
What does glucagon do?
Stimulates the liver to break down glycogen stores to glucose and release it into the blood
What stimulates glucagon?
Low blood glucose levels
What are the endocrine portions of the pancreas called?
Islets of Langerhans
What cells are responsible for the exocrine function of the pancreas?
What controls the adrenal medulla?
Sympathetic nervous system neurons
What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What gland is important in the fight or flight response?
What are the major groups of steroid hormones that the adrenal cortex produces?
Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
What are the corticosteroids?
Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
What is an example of a mineralcorticoid?
What is aldosterone important for?
Water and electrolyte balance especially sodium reabsorption in the kidney tubules
What is an example of a glucocorticoid?
What is the function of cortisol?
Enables the body to resist long term stressors
What are examples of gonadocorticoids?
Androgens and estrogens
What are the layers of the adrenal cortex?
Zona glomerulosa, zona fasticula, and zona reticularis
What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most mineralcorticoids?
What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most glucocorticoids?
What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most gonadocorticoids?
What is the major endocrine product if the pineal gland?
What is the role of the pineal gland?
What are the lobes of the pituitary gland called?
Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
What is the general term for hormones produced by the adenohypophysis?
What is a tropic hormone?
A hormone that stimulates a target organ which is also an endocrine gland
What are the anterior pituitary tropic hormones?
Gonadotropins (Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
What are the roles of the gonadotropins FSH and LH?
Regulate gamete production and hormonal activity of the gonads
What is the role of ACTH?
Regulates the activity if the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
What is the role of TSH?
Influences growth and activity of the thyroid gland
What are the non tropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary?
Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)
What is the role of GH?
General metabolic hormone with major effects on growth of muscle and the long bones of the body
What is the role of prolactin?
Stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains lactation of mammary glands after birth
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland?
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is the role of oxytocin?
Stimulates powerful uterine contractions during birth and causes milk ejection in lactating mothers
What is the role of ADH?
Causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidney to reabsorbed more water from the filtrate
What dies hyposecretion of ADH cause?
Does the posterior pituitary synthesis the hormones it releases?
No, they are only stored here. They are made by the neurons of the hypothalamus
What controls the posterior pituitary gland?
What are characteristics of the anterior pituitary cells?
Bluish with redish brown spots
What are characteristics of the posterior pituitary cells?
Redish and more spaced out
What cells make up the anterior pituitary?
Acidophil cells, basophil cells, and chromophobes
What cells produce GH?
What cells produce prolactin?
What cells produce the tropic hormones?
What cells make up the posterior pituitary?
Pituicytes and nerve fibers
How does the hypothalamus control the anterior pituitary hormone?
Releasing and inhibiting hormones
How does the hypothalamus control the posterior pituitary hormone?
What causes release of gonadotropins?
GnRH from the hypothalamus
What causes TSH to be released?
TRH from the hypothalamus
What causes ACTH to be released?
CRH from the hypothalamus
What causes the release of GH?
GHRH and GHIH from the hypothalamus
What are somatomedins?
Mediators of negative feedback for GH
What is a positive feedback mechanism for GH?
Exercise and energy demanding activities
What controls PRL secretion?
PRH and PRI from the hypothalamus
Which is produced more, T3 or T4?
How are T4 and T3 (as thyroglobulin) released from the follicles?
What does T3 do?
Activates genes which control cellular metabolism and produce enzymes for aerobic metabolism
What is Cushings syndrom caused by?
High levels of cortisol due to excess ATH secretion
What term describes the enhanced effect the adrenal medulla has on sympathetic NS secretion of epinephrine?