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  1. what dies the thyroid hormone produce?
    Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) and calcitonin
  2. What is the primary role of the thyroid hormones?
    Control rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation
  3. What is the role of calcitonin?
    Decreases blood calcium levels by depositing calcium into the bones (antagonist to parathyroid glands)
  4. What cells produce calcitonin?
  5. What are the sacs that contain T3 and T4 called?
  6. What are T3 and T4 stored as?
  7. What hormone do the parathyroid glands secrete?
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  8. What is the role of PTH?
    Increases blood calcium by releasing calcium from the bone matrix and increases reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys
  9. What cells produce PTH?
    Chief cells
  10. What hormones does the thymus produce?
    Thymosin and thymopoietin
  11. What is the function if the thymus?
    Produces hormones related to maturation and specialization of T cells
  12. What gland has both endocrine and exocrine abilities?
  13. What does the pancreas produce?
    Digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon
  14. What is the main role of the pancreas?
    Regulate blood sugar levels
  15. What stimulates the release of insulin?
    Elevated blood glucose levels
  16. Hyposecretion of insulin causes what disease?
    Diabetes mellitus
  17. Hypersecretion of insulin causes what?
  18. What does glucagon do?
    Stimulates the liver to break down glycogen stores to glucose and release it into the blood
  19. What stimulates glucagon?
    Low blood glucose levels
  20. What are the endocrine portions of the pancreas called?
    Islets of Langerhans
  21. What cells are responsible for the exocrine function of the pancreas?
    Acinar cells
  22. What controls the adrenal medulla?
    Sympathetic nervous system neurons
  23. What hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete?
    Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  24. What gland is important in the fight or flight response?
    Adrenal glands
  25. What are the major groups of steroid hormones that the adrenal cortex produces?
    Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
  26. What are the corticosteroids?
    Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
  27. What is an example of a mineralcorticoid?
  28. What is aldosterone important for?
    Water and electrolyte balance especially sodium reabsorption in the kidney tubules
  29. What is an example of a glucocorticoid?
  30. What is the function of cortisol?
    Enables the body to resist long term stressors
  31. What are examples of gonadocorticoids?
    Androgens and estrogens
  32. What are the layers of the adrenal cortex?
    Zona glomerulosa, zona fasticula, and zona reticularis
  33. What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most mineralcorticoids?
    Zona glomerulosa
  34. What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most glucocorticoids?
    Zona fasticula
  35. What layer of the adrenal cortex produces most gonadocorticoids?
    Zona reticularis
  36. What is the major endocrine product if the pineal gland?
  37. What is the role of the pineal gland?
    Biological rhythms
  38. What are the lobes of the pituitary gland called?
    Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
  39. What is the general term for hormones produced by the adenohypophysis?
    Tropic hormones
  40. What is a tropic hormone?
    A hormone that stimulates a target organ which is also an endocrine gland
  41. What are the anterior pituitary tropic hormones?
    Gonadotropins (Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  42. What are the roles of the gonadotropins FSH and LH?
    Regulate gamete production and hormonal activity of the gonads
  43. What is the role of ACTH?
    Regulates the activity if the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
  44. What is the role of TSH?
    Influences growth and activity of the thyroid gland
  45. What are the non tropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary?
    Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL)
  46. What is the role of GH?
    General metabolic hormone with major effects on growth of muscle and the long bones of the body
  47. What is the role of prolactin?
    Stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains lactation of mammary glands after birth
  48. What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland?
    Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  49. What is the role of oxytocin?
    Stimulates powerful uterine contractions during birth and causes milk ejection in lactating mothers
  50. What is the role of ADH?
    Causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidney to reabsorbed more water from the filtrate
  51. What dies hyposecretion of ADH cause?
    Diabetes insipidus
  52. Does the posterior pituitary synthesis the hormones it releases?
    No, they are only stored here. They are made by the neurons of the hypothalamus
  53. What controls the posterior pituitary gland?
    Nerve impulses
  54. What are characteristics of the anterior pituitary cells?
    Bluish with redish brown spots
  55. What are characteristics of the posterior pituitary cells?
    Redish and more spaced out
  56. What cells make up the anterior pituitary?
    Acidophil cells, basophil cells, and chromophobes
  57. What cells produce GH?
    Acidophil cells
  58. What cells produce prolactin?
    Acidophil cells
  59. What cells produce the tropic hormones?
    Basophil cells
  60. What cells make up the posterior pituitary?
    Pituicytes and nerve fibers
  61. How does the hypothalamus control the anterior pituitary hormone?
    Releasing and inhibiting hormones
  62. How does the hypothalamus control the posterior pituitary hormone?
  63. What causes release of gonadotropins?
    GnRH from the hypothalamus
  64. What causes TSH to be released?
    TRH from the hypothalamus
  65. What causes ACTH to be released?
    CRH from the hypothalamus
  66. What causes the release of GH?
    GHRH and GHIH from the hypothalamus
  67. What are somatomedins?
    Mediators of negative feedback for GH
  68. What is a positive feedback mechanism for GH?
    Exercise and energy demanding activities
  69. What controls PRL secretion?
    PRH and PRI from the hypothalamus
  70. Which is produced more, T3 or T4?
  71. How are T4 and T3 (as thyroglobulin) released from the follicles?
  72. What does T3 do?
    Activates genes which control cellular metabolism and produce enzymes for aerobic metabolism
  73. What is Cushings syndrom caused by?
    High levels of cortisol due to excess ATH secretion
  74. What term describes the enhanced effect the adrenal medulla has on sympathetic NS secretion of epinephrine?
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