Reproductive_System.txt

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asmalley
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120440
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Reproductive_System.txt
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2011-12-06 01:19:04
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  1. What are the external skin folds homologous to the scrotum?
    Labia majora
  2. What enclosed the vestibule of the female?
    Labia minora
  3. What is the female structure homologous to the penis?
    Clitoris
  4. What glands are responsible for lubrication during intercourse?
    Greater vestibular glands
  5. What us the thick muscular lining of the uterus?
    Endometrium
  6. What are the layers of the endometrium?
    Stratum functionalis and stratum basalis
  7. What layer of the endometrium sloughs off during mensturation?
    Stratum functionalis
  8. What is the function if the stratum basalis?
    Produces the stratum functionalis
  9. What are the superolateral regions of the uterus that extend laterally?
    Fallopian tubes
  10. What are the finger-like projections of the Fallopian tubes?
    Fimbriae
  11. Where is the site of egg formation?
    Ovaries
  12. In what sacs do the testes lie?
    Scrotum
  13. What function do the testes have?
    Endocrine (testosterone) and exocrine (sperm)
  14. What are the layers that cover the testes?
    Tunica albuginea and tunica vaginalis
  15. What layer of the tested covering divides it into lobes?
    Tunics albuginea
  16. What layer of the testes covering covers the seminiferous tubules and part of the epididymis?
    Tunica vaginalis
  17. What us the site of spermatogenesis?
    Seminiferous tubules
  18. What cells produce testosterone in the testes?
    Interstitial cells
  19. What is the set if tubules that follows the seminiferous tubules?
    Rete testes
  20. What is the sure of sperm maturation?
    Epididymis
  21. What is the skeletal muscle responsible for thermoregulation of the testes?
    Cremaster muscle
  22. What transports sperm from the epididymis?
    Vas deferens
  23. What secretes a fluid into the urethra that activates the sperm?
    Prostate
  24. What produces the majority of the seminal fluid?
    Seminal vesicles
  25. What gland secretes mucous into the urethra prior to ejaculation?
    Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
  26. Where does the urethra start?
    Prostate to membranous urethra to spongy urethra
  27. What are the divisions of erectile tissue in the penis?
    Corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
  28. What erectile tissue is organized in paired dorsal cylinders?
    Corpora cavernosa
  29. What erectile tissue runs throughout the penis?
    Corpora spongiosum
  30. What are the stages of spermatogenesis?
    Spermatagonium -> primary spermatocyte -> secondary spermatocyte -> spermatids -> spermatozoa -> sperm
  31. At what stage does genetic information get cut in half?
    When the secondary spermatocytes are formed
  32. What performs a counter-current heat exchange function for the testes?
    Pampiniform plexus
  33. What are the stages of forming an ovum?
    Oogonia -> primordial follicle with primary oocyte -> primary follicle with primary oocyte -> secondary follicle with primary oocyte -> graffian follicle with secondary oocyte -> ovum (when fertilized) or corpus luteum (when secondary oocyte is ovulated)
  34. What hormone stimulates development of the primary follicle?
    FSH
  35. What effect does FSH have on primary follicles?
    Cause follicles to secrete estrogen
  36. What hormone provides a negative feedback for FSH?
    Estrogen
  37. What hormone influenced the proliferation phase of the uterus?
    Estrogen
  38. What is the main hormone produces during the follicular phase of the ovary?
    Estrogen
  39. What does the corpus luteum produce?
    Estrogen and progesterone
  40. What hormones build up on the endometrium during the secretory phase?
    Estrogen and progesterone
  41. Estrogen an progesterone produced by the corpus luteum provide negative feedback to decrease what hormone?
    LH
  42. What does a decrease in LH cause?
    Breakdown of the corpus luteum which leads to menstruation
  43. What hormone replaces LH in early pregnancy?
    HCG
  44. What function does HCG have?
    Maintains the corpus luteum for 1st 8 weeks
  45. What is the layer around the secondary oocyte that sperm have to digest?
    Corona radiata
  46. What does meiosis I do?
    Separates homologous chromosomes to produce 2 haploid cells (crossover may occur)
  47. What does meiosis II do?
    Separates chromatids of each chromosome producing 4 gametes
  48. What have the potential to undergo spermatogenesis or produce stem cells?
    Spermatagonia
  49. Meiosis in males produces what?
    Spermatids
  50. What do sustentacular cells do?
    Maintains environment of the seminiferious tubules and produce ABP which combines with testosterone to complete spermatogenesis
  51. what is the enzymatic cap of the sperm head called?
    Acrosome
  52. Where do the flagellum come from?
    Centrioles
  53. What area concentrates the sperm?
    Rete testes
  54. What aids in emmision?
    Rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle layers of the epididymis
  55. what do the spermatic cord and seminal vesicle duct become?
    Ejaculatory duct
  56. What two substances control spermatogenesis?
    ABP and testosterone
  57. What stimulates the sustentacular cells?
    FSH
  58. What provide negative feedback to the hypothalamus in spermatogenesis?
    Inhibin and testosterone
  59. What is a mature follicle called?
    Graafian follicle
  60. What is a negative feedback for FSH in women?
    Estrogen
  61. What exerts positive feedback on the pituitary to release LH?
    Estrogen
  62. What are the initial effects of LH?
    Completion of meiosis II, ovulation, and formation of the corpus luteum
  63. What produces negative feedback on the pituitary to decrease LH secretion?
    Corpus luteum
  64. What is the dense bundle of cells formed by day 6 of fertilization?
    Morula
  65. What surrounds the embryo and bathes it in fluid?
    Amnion
  66. What produces HCG to keep the corpus luteum in tact and later forms the fetal placenta?
    Chorion
  67. What extend into the endometrium to exchange gases and nutrients?
    Chorionic villi
  68. What arteries serve the basal layer of the endometrium?
    Straight arteries
  69. What arteries serve the functional layer of the endometrium?
    Spiral arteries
  70. What do the lacunae formed in the endometrium do?
    Provide blood to the placenta
  71. What section of the fallopian tube is the site of fertilization?
    Ampula
  72. What does the maternal portion of the placenta form from?
    Decidua basalis
  73. What does the CO2 difference from the fetus cause?
    Double Bohr effect on oxygen release from maternal hemoglobin and saturation of fetal hemoglobin
  74. What does relaxin do?
    Prepares cervix and pelvic ligaments for birth
  75. What does somatomammotropin do?
    Stimulates development of secretory cells in the breast
  76. What causes a positive feedback mechanism for delivery?
    Pressure on cervix and oxytocin

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