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What are the external skin folds homologous to the scrotum?
What enclosed the vestibule of the female?
What is the female structure homologous to the penis?
What glands are responsible for lubrication during intercourse?
Greater vestibular glands
What us the thick muscular lining of the uterus?
What are the layers of the endometrium?
Stratum functionalis and stratum basalis
What layer of the endometrium sloughs off during mensturation?
What is the function if the stratum basalis?
Produces the stratum functionalis
What are the superolateral regions of the uterus that extend laterally?
What are the finger-like projections of the Fallopian tubes?
Where is the site of egg formation?
In what sacs do the testes lie?
What function do the testes have?
Endocrine (testosterone) and exocrine (sperm)
What are the layers that cover the testes?
Tunica albuginea and tunica vaginalis
What layer of the tested covering divides it into lobes?
What layer of the testes covering covers the seminiferous tubules and part of the epididymis?
What us the site of spermatogenesis?
What cells produce testosterone in the testes?
What is the set if tubules that follows the seminiferous tubules?
What is the sure of sperm maturation?
What is the skeletal muscle responsible for thermoregulation of the testes?
What transports sperm from the epididymis?
What secretes a fluid into the urethra that activates the sperm?
What produces the majority of the seminal fluid?
What gland secretes mucous into the urethra prior to ejaculation?
Bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands
Where does the urethra start?
Prostate to membranous urethra to spongy urethra
What are the divisions of erectile tissue in the penis?
Corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
What erectile tissue is organized in paired dorsal cylinders?
What erectile tissue runs throughout the penis?
What are the stages of spermatogenesis?
Spermatagonium -> primary spermatocyte -> secondary spermatocyte -> spermatids -> spermatozoa -> sperm
At what stage does genetic information get cut in half?
When the secondary spermatocytes are formed
What performs a counter-current heat exchange function for the testes?
What are the stages of forming an ovum?
Oogonia -> primordial follicle with primary oocyte -> primary follicle with primary oocyte -> secondary follicle with primary oocyte -> graffian follicle with secondary oocyte -> ovum (when fertilized) or corpus luteum (when secondary oocyte is ovulated)
What hormone stimulates development of the primary follicle?
What effect does FSH have on primary follicles?
Cause follicles to secrete estrogen
What hormone provides a negative feedback for FSH?
What hormone influenced the proliferation phase of the uterus?
What is the main hormone produces during the follicular phase of the ovary?
What does the corpus luteum produce?
Estrogen and progesterone
What hormones build up on the endometrium during the secretory phase?
Estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen an progesterone produced by the corpus luteum provide negative feedback to decrease what hormone?
What does a decrease in LH cause?
Breakdown of the corpus luteum which leads to menstruation
What hormone replaces LH in early pregnancy?
What function does HCG have?
Maintains the corpus luteum for 1st 8 weeks
What is the layer around the secondary oocyte that sperm have to digest?
What does meiosis I do?
Separates homologous chromosomes to produce 2 haploid cells (crossover may occur)
What does meiosis II do?
Separates chromatids of each chromosome producing 4 gametes
What have the potential to undergo spermatogenesis or produce stem cells?
Meiosis in males produces what?
What do sustentacular cells do?
Maintains environment of the seminiferious tubules and produce ABP which combines with testosterone to complete spermatogenesis
what is the enzymatic cap of the sperm head called?
Where do the flagellum come from?
What area concentrates the sperm?
What aids in emmision?
Rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscle layers of the epididymis
what do the spermatic cord and seminal vesicle duct become?
What two substances control spermatogenesis?
ABP and testosterone
What stimulates the sustentacular cells?
What provide negative feedback to the hypothalamus in spermatogenesis?
Inhibin and testosterone
What is a mature follicle called?
What is a negative feedback for FSH in women?
What exerts positive feedback on the pituitary to release LH?
What are the initial effects of LH?
Completion of meiosis II, ovulation, and formation of the corpus luteum
What produces negative feedback on the pituitary to decrease LH secretion?
What is the dense bundle of cells formed by day 6 of fertilization?
What surrounds the embryo and bathes it in fluid?
What produces HCG to keep the corpus luteum in tact and later forms the fetal placenta?
What extend into the endometrium to exchange gases and nutrients?
What arteries serve the basal layer of the endometrium?
What arteries serve the functional layer of the endometrium?
What do the lacunae formed in the endometrium do?
Provide blood to the placenta
What section of the fallopian tube is the site of fertilization?
What does the maternal portion of the placenta form from?
What does the CO2 difference from the fetus cause?
Double Bohr effect on oxygen release from maternal hemoglobin and saturation of fetal hemoglobin
What does relaxin do?
Prepares cervix and pelvic ligaments for birth
What does somatomammotropin do?
Stimulates development of secretory cells in the breast
What causes a positive feedback mechanism for delivery?
Pressure on cervix and oxytocin