Card Set Information
Where air enters respiratory system
Area after the nares separated by nasal septum
What separates the nasal passages from the oral cavity?
Hard palate (anteriorly) and soft palate (posteriorly)
What connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus?
What are the 3 divisions of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located and what is their function?
Posterior wall of nasopharynx; protect respiratory passages from invading pathogens
Where are the lingual tonsils located?
Part of the oropharynx covering the base of the tongue
Where are the palatine tonsils located?
Lateral walls of the oropharynx
What function does the epiglottis serve?
It is a flap like structure of elastic cartilage forms a lid over the larynx when we swallow
How many cartilages make up the larynx?
What cartilage is the Adams apple?
What is the cricoid cartilage?
The inferior ring-shaped cartilage of the pharynx
What are the two folds formed by the mucous membrane of the larynx?
Vestibular and Vocal folds
What is the passage between the folds of the larynx called?
What are the vocal cords attached to that controls pitch?
What is the windpipe called?
What are the divisions of the bronchi from largest to smallest?
Primary bronchus -> secondary bronchus -> tertiary bronchus -> bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveoli
How many lobes do the left and right lungs have?
2 and 3
What layer of the lung attaches it to the thoracic wall and the diaphragm?
What layer of the lung directly covers it?
What separates the two pleural layers and what is its function?
Pleural cavity; produces lubricating serous fluid causing adherence of the two layers
What type of epithelium forms the respiratory tract?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What are the differences between the right and left bronchi in regards to width, length, and orientation
The right is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left
Why is the trachea reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
To keep airway open regardless of pressure changes curing breathing
What are the respiratory zone structures?
Alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles
What are the structures of the conducting zone?
All passageways from nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles
What is a spirometer?
What is a spirogram?
Shows the results of a full breathing test
What is the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation and it's volume?
Inspiratory reserve volume and 3100 ml
What is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions and it's volume?
Tidal volume and 500 ml
What is the amount if air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation and it's volume?
Expiatory reserve volume and 1200 ml
What is the volume left in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled and it's volume?
Residual volume and 1200 ml
What makes up the vital capacity and what is it's size?
IRV + TV + ERV which totals 4800 ml
What makes up the inspiratory capacity and what's it's size?
IRV + TV which total 3600 ml
What is the volume if total lung capacity?
What makes up the functional residual capacity and it's volume?
ERV + RV and 2400 ml
How to calculate minute respiratory volume
TV * respirations per minute
What does forced expiratory volume measure?
Looks at the percentage of the VC that is exhaled during a specific time interval
What obstructive disorders effect FEV tests?
What percentage of total lung capacity should the VC be?
Identify hyaline cartilage plate
Identify smooth muscle
Identify alveolar duct
Identify a respiratory bronchiole
What does ventilatio consist of?
Exchange of respiratory gases between atmosphere and lungs
What two factors does ventilation use?
Gas pressure and muscle contractions
What is external respiration?
Exhange of gases between lungs and blood
What does external respiration use?
partial pressure of gases, diffusion, and chemical reactions in transport of O
What is internal respiration?
Exchange of gases between blood and symtemic tissues
What does internal respiration use?
Same as external respiration
What is the first line of protection to keep particles out of the respiratory system?
What is the function of the nasal conchae?
Increases surface area of mucous membrane, wams and moistens are as it passes.
Characteristics of the mucosa of the nasal cavity
Non-cilliated with olfactory mucosa with olfactory receptors
Characteristics of the respiratory mucosa
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What opening leads to the pharynx?
Which division of the pharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsils?
What does the eustachian canal do?
Allows equalization of pressure between the atmosphere and middle ear
Where is the eustachian canal located?
What canal opens when you yawn?
What type of lining is in the nasopharynx?
What is the lining of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx?
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
What comes after the pharynx?
What bone supports the larynx?
What happens when you swallow?
Hyoid hinges upwards, larynx tilts backwards, and epiglottis lies flat covering the glottis
What do the vocal cords attach anteriorly to?
What is the function of the vestibular folds?
Catch aspirated matrials
Does any gas exchange occur in the conducting zone?
What is the begining of the conducting zone?
What composes the upper respiratory division?
nasal cavity and pharynx (and larynx)
What are the C-ring cartilages of the trachea made of?
What is the lining from the trachea to the bronchi?
What cells are in the trachea mucosa?
Cilliated, mucus, serous, brush, and basal cells
What are brush cells associated with?
Cough and sneeze reflex
What is a trait of the submuscosa of the trachea?
Abundant fluid production via seromucous glands for muscocilliary escalator
What type of lymphoid tissue is present in the submucosa of the trachea?
What is the purpose of the membraneous portion of C-rings?
Flexible to accomodate the esophagus
Where is the trachealis muscle?
Part of smooth muscle layer found in the respiratory tree (thickest in membraneous portion and betweeen cartilage rings)
Where does respiratory smooth muscle disappear?
How does epinephrine effect the respiratory system?
Simulates beta-adrenergic receptors causing brochiole dilation
What are the branches of the trachea?
Primary bronchi (to each lung), secondary bronchi (to each lobe 2:3), tertiary bronchi (to 18 bronchiopulmonary segments 8:10), bronchopulmonary segments, sub-segmental bronchi, bronchioles
What are the srtuctural and functional units of the lung?
What is the last branch of the conducting zone?
What does each bronchiopulmonary segment include?
Branch of the pulmonary artery, vein, and a tertiary bronchus
What does the lining change to in the bronchioles?
Simple ciliated columnar epithelium
What happens in the respiratory zone?
Gas exchange between blood and lungs
What is the lining of the respiratory zone composed of?
simple squamous epithelium with elastic stroma present
What begins the respiratory zone?
What connects respiratory bronchioles to the alveolar sacs?
How does structure match function for the alveoli?
Thin walled with an elastic basement membrane to allow gas transport without water entering
What cover the alveolar sacs to exchange oxygen?
What are Type I alveolar cells?
Simple squamous cells of alveolar wall
What are Type II alveolar cells?
What breaks the surface tension of water in the alveoli?
Why is surfactant important?
Without surfactant, the alveoli would collapse during expiration
Where do pulmonary arteries, veins, and bronchi attach to the lungs?
What is the cardiac notch?
Concave shape of the medial border of the left lung
What is the covering of the lungs called?
What is the inner layer of the pleural membrane called?
What is the outer layer of the plural membrane called?
What is Boyle's law?
Volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional
What is the movement of air in the lungs due to?
Boyle's law (lungs expand increasing volume and decreasing pressure)
What muscle is responsible for restful ventilation?
What is the shape of the diaphram when relaxed?
Contraction of the diaphram causes what?
Increased lung volume, decreased pulmonary pressur, and then inspiration
What muscles are used for focred inspiration?
Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, external intercostals
What muscles are used for forceful expiration?
Internal intercostals, abdominal rectus and obliques
How do you calculate Alveolar Ventilation Rate (AVR)?
Rate X (Tidal volume - 150mL)
What is the volume of the conducting zone?
What increases ARV more?
Increased volume (rather than increased rate)
What is pressure inside the lungs called?
How does intrapulmonary pressure compare to atmospheric pressure?
Oscillates around 0 atm
How does intrapleural pressure relate to atmospheric pressure?
Always negative (-4 to -8 atm) due to pulling action of ribcage and diaphram on parietal pleura
What happens if air enters the pleural space (a pneumothorax) or pressure increases?
The lungs collapse
What is complians/distensibility?
Tendency of the lungs to expand
What aids compliance/distensibility?
Constant pull and resulting negative pressure of the lungs and surfactant
What is elasticity/recoil?
Process by which lungs return to their original resting volume
What is elasticity/recoil due to?
What do restrictive disorder affect?
Compliance and/or elasticity
How does emphysema affect the lungs?
Increases compliance (volume inspired) and decreases elasticity (volume expired and gas exchanged)
How does pulmonary fibrosis affect the lungs?
Decreases compliance and elasticity
What can an alpha-1-anti trypsin deficiency lead to?
Emphysema and COPD
Which type of disorder decreases vital capacity?
What type of disorder reduces the size op bronchial passageways interfering with airflow?
What is a characteristic of bronchitis?
Inflammation of the bronchial passage
What causes obstructive emphysema?
A resulting infection and inflammation of the bronchioles due to regular emphysema
Emphysema is typically what type of disease?
What are symptoms of asthma?
Chronic inflammed airways, constriction, and excess mucus
What type of disease is asthma?
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
A mixture of emphysema, bronchitis, and athma
What is the function of the residual volume?
Keeps alveoli inflated
What is the functional residual capacity (FRC)?
ERV + RV
What diseas effects FRC and how?
Emphysema and increases it
What factor of breathing do obstructive disorders affect?
Rate (ex. FEV1)
What is Dalton's Law?
The partial pressure of gas in a mixture = the fraction ocupied by the gas X total pressure of mixture
What does increased water vapor do to partial pressures of other gases?
What is gas exchange due to?
Concentration gradient of gases
What is the effect of pO
on hemoglobin saturation called?
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
How does pO
effect hemoglobin saturation?
Doesn't effect greatly in oxygenated blood, but does in deoxygenated blood
What effect does lowering pH have on hemoglobin saturation?
Decreases (though greater dissociation of oxygena and hemoglobin)
What is the Bohr effect?
Describes the result of increased CO
causing the unloading of O
What causes the Bohr effect?
Lowered pH and carbamoino hemoglobin stimulating oxygen unloading
What is the Haldane effect?
A reduction of oxygen on hemoglobin allowing more CO
As elevation increases, atmospheric pressure ______.
What is the primary factor in the effect of altitude on hemoglobin?
What doe 2,3-DPG do?
Attaches to hemoglobin when O
levels decrease which decreases its affinity for O
What is the ventilation-perfusion ratio?
Ratio of alveolar pressure to perfusion of alveolar capillaries
What happens with ventilation-perfusion coupling?
Alveolar hypoxia (decreased O
causes local vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying the area
What are the pressures of oxygen in respiration?
: 160 ppm
: 100 ppm
: 40 ppm
: 100 ppm
: 120 ppm
What are the pressures of carbon dioxide in respiration?
: 0.3 ppm
: 45 ppm
: 40 ppm
: 40 ppm
: 27 ppm
How is pH controlled by ventilation?
removed increases pH and less CO
Where is the respiratory center located?
Medulla of the brainstem
What controls fine tuned breathing rate and depth?
What type of input does the medulla receive for breathing?
Messages from chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and from voluntary centers in the brain
What do central chemoreceptors in the medulla respond to?
and H+ concentration
What do peripheral chemoreceptors respond to?
Most sensitive to decreased pO
(must be below 60 mmHg)
How do mechanoreceptors regulate breathing?
Respond to stretch to reglate depth and rate of breathing
What does the Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) do?
Sends stim (ramp signals) to muscles of inspiration and produces respiratory rhythm
What does the Ventral respiratory group (VRG) do?
Has inspiratory and expiratory neurons that are active mostly during forced breathing
What repiratory group is active in hyperventilation (ex. exercise)?
What do pneumotaxis centers control?
When inspiration shifts to expiration (Strong signal decreases inspiration and increases rate)
What is the response of increased blood CO
and H+/decreased pH?
Hyperventilation (Increased rate and/or volume)
What is the response of decreased blood CO
and H+/increased pH?
What is the response of voluntary hyperventilation?
Decreased blood CO
, increased pH, and decreased stimulus for respiration
What is the response for voluntary hypoventilation?
Increased blood CO
, decreased pH, and increased stimulus for respiration