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  1. Where air enters respiratory system
  2. Area after the nares separated by nasal septum
    Nasal cavity
  3. What separates the nasal passages from the oral cavity?
    Hard palate (anteriorly) and soft palate (posteriorly)
  4. What connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus?
  5. What are the 3 divisions of the pharynx?
    Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
  6. Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located and what is their function?
    Posterior wall of nasopharynx; protect respiratory passages from invading pathogens
  7. Where are the lingual tonsils located?
    Part of the oropharynx covering the base of the tongue
  8. Where are the palatine tonsils located?
    Lateral walls of the oropharynx
  9. What function does the epiglottis serve?
    It is a flap like structure of elastic cartilage forms a lid over the larynx when we swallow
  10. How many cartilages make up the larynx?
  11. What cartilage is the Adams apple?
    Thyroid cartilage
  12. What is the cricoid cartilage?
    The inferior ring-shaped cartilage of the pharynx
  13. What are the two folds formed by the mucous membrane of the larynx?
    Vestibular and Vocal folds
  14. What is the passage between the folds of the larynx called?
  15. What are the vocal cords attached to that controls pitch?
    Arytenoid cartilage
  16. What is the windpipe called?
  17. What are the divisions of the bronchi from largest to smallest?
    Primary bronchus -> secondary bronchus -> tertiary bronchus -> bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveoli
  18. How many lobes do the left and right lungs have?
    2 and 3
  19. What layer of the lung attaches it to the thoracic wall and the diaphragm?
    Parietal pleura
  20. What layer of the lung directly covers it?
    Visceral pleura
  21. What separates the two pleural layers and what is its function?
    Pleural cavity; produces lubricating serous fluid causing adherence of the two layers
  22. What type of epithelium forms the respiratory tract?
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  23. What are the differences between the right and left bronchi in regards to width, length, and orientation
    The right is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left
  24. Why is the trachea reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
    To keep airway open regardless of pressure changes curing breathing
  25. What are the respiratory zone structures?
    Alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles
  26. What are the structures of the conducting zone?
    All passageways from nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles
  27. What is a spirometer?
    Measures airflow
  28. What is a spirogram?
    Shows the results of a full breathing test
  29. What is the amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation and it's volume?
    Inspiratory reserve volume and 3100 ml
  30. What is the amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions and it's volume?
    Tidal volume and 500 ml
  31. What is the amount if air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation and it's volume?
    Expiatory reserve volume and 1200 ml
  32. What is the volume left in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled and it's volume?
    Residual volume and 1200 ml
  33. What makes up the vital capacity and what is it's size?
    IRV + TV + ERV which totals 4800 ml
  34. What makes up the inspiratory capacity and what's it's size?
    IRV + TV which total 3600 ml
  35. What is the volume if total lung capacity?
    6000 ml
  36. What makes up the functional residual capacity and it's volume?
    ERV + RV and 2400 ml
  37. How to calculate minute respiratory volume
    TV * respirations per minute
  38. What does forced expiratory volume measure?
    Looks at the percentage of the VC that is exhaled during a specific time interval
  39. What obstructive disorders effect FEV tests?
  40. What percentage of total lung capacity should the VC be?
  41. Identify PCCE
    see book
  42. Identify hyaline cartilage plate
    See book
  43. Identify smooth muscle
    See book
  44. Identify alveoli
    See book
  45. Identify alveolar duct
    See book
  46. Identify a respiratory bronchiole
    See book
  47. Identify capillaries
    See book
  48. What does ventilatio consist of?
    Exchange of respiratory gases between atmosphere and lungs
  49. What two factors does ventilation use?
    Gas pressure and muscle contractions
  50. What is external respiration?
    Exhange of gases between lungs and blood
  51. What does external respiration use?
    partial pressure of gases, diffusion, and chemical reactions in transport of O2 and CO2
  52. What is internal respiration?
    Exchange of gases between blood and symtemic tissues
  53. What does internal respiration use?
    Same as external respiration
  54. What is the first line of protection to keep particles out of the respiratory system?
    Vibrissae (hairs)
  55. What is the function of the nasal conchae?
    Increases surface area of mucous membrane, wams and moistens are as it passes.
  56. Characteristics of the mucosa of the nasal cavity
    Non-cilliated with olfactory mucosa with olfactory receptors
  57. Characteristics of the respiratory mucosa
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  58. What opening leads to the pharynx?
    Internal nares
  59. Which division of the pharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsils?
  60. What does the eustachian canal do?
    Allows equalization of pressure between the atmosphere and middle ear
  61. Where is the eustachian canal located?
  62. What canal opens when you yawn?
    Eustachian canal
  63. What type of lining is in the nasopharynx?
  64. What is the lining of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx?
    non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  65. What comes after the pharynx?
  66. What bone supports the larynx?
    Hyoid bone
  67. What happens when you swallow?
    Hyoid hinges upwards, larynx tilts backwards, and epiglottis lies flat covering the glottis
  68. What do the vocal cords attach anteriorly to?
    Throid cartilage
  69. What is the function of the vestibular folds?
    Catch aspirated matrials
  70. Does any gas exchange occur in the conducting zone?
  71. What is the begining of the conducting zone?
  72. What composes the upper respiratory division?
    nasal cavity and pharynx (and larynx)
  73. What are the C-ring cartilages of the trachea made of?
    Hyaline cartilage
  74. What is the lining from the trachea to the bronchi?
  75. What cells are in the trachea mucosa?
    Cilliated, mucus, serous, brush, and basal cells
  76. What are brush cells associated with?
    Cough and sneeze reflex
  77. What is a trait of the submuscosa of the trachea?
    Abundant fluid production via seromucous glands for muscocilliary escalator
  78. What type of lymphoid tissue is present in the submucosa of the trachea?
  79. What is the purpose of the membraneous portion of C-rings?
    Flexible to accomodate the esophagus
  80. Where is the trachealis muscle?
    Part of smooth muscle layer found in the respiratory tree (thickest in membraneous portion and betweeen cartilage rings)
  81. Where does respiratory smooth muscle disappear?
    Respiratory bronchioles
  82. How does epinephrine effect the respiratory system?
    Simulates beta-adrenergic receptors causing brochiole dilation
  83. What are the branches of the trachea?
    Primary bronchi (to each lung), secondary bronchi (to each lobe 2:3), tertiary bronchi (to 18 bronchiopulmonary segments 8:10), bronchopulmonary segments, sub-segmental bronchi, bronchioles
  84. What are the srtuctural and functional units of the lung?
    Bronchopulmonary segments
  85. What is the last branch of the conducting zone?
    Large bronchioles
  86. What does each bronchiopulmonary segment include?
    Branch of the pulmonary artery, vein, and a tertiary bronchus
  87. What does the lining change to in the bronchioles?
    Simple ciliated columnar epithelium
  88. What happens in the respiratory zone?
    Gas exchange between blood and lungs
  89. What is the lining of the respiratory zone composed of?
    simple squamous epithelium with elastic stroma present
  90. What begins the respiratory zone?
    respiratory bronchioles
  91. What connects respiratory bronchioles to the alveolar sacs?
    alveolar ducts
  92. How does structure match function for the alveoli?
    Thin walled with an elastic basement membrane to allow gas transport without water entering
  93. What cover the alveolar sacs to exchange oxygen?
    Pulmonary capillaries
  94. What are Type I alveolar cells?
    Simple squamous cells of alveolar wall
  95. What are Type II alveolar cells?
    Secrete surfactant
  96. What breaks the surface tension of water in the alveoli?
  97. Why is surfactant important?
    Without surfactant, the alveoli would collapse during expiration
  98. Where do pulmonary arteries, veins, and bronchi attach to the lungs?
  99. What is the cardiac notch?
    Concave shape of the medial border of the left lung
  100. What is the covering of the lungs called?
    Plueral membrane
  101. What is the inner layer of the pleural membrane called?
    Visceral pluera
  102. What is the outer layer of the plural membrane called?
    Parietal pleura
  103. What is Boyle's law?
    Volume and pressure of a gas are inversely proportional
  104. What is the movement of air in the lungs due to?
    Boyle's law (lungs expand increasing volume and decreasing pressure)
  105. What muscle is responsible for restful ventilation?
  106. What is the shape of the diaphram when relaxed?
    Dome shaped
  107. Contraction of the diaphram causes what?
    Increased lung volume, decreased pulmonary pressur, and then inspiration
  108. What muscles are used for focred inspiration?
    Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, external intercostals
  109. What muscles are used for forceful expiration?
    Internal intercostals, abdominal rectus and obliques
  110. How do you calculate Alveolar Ventilation Rate (AVR)?
    Rate X (Tidal volume - 150mL)
  111. What is the volume of the conducting zone?
    150 mL
  112. What increases ARV more?
    Increased volume (rather than increased rate)
  113. What is pressure inside the lungs called?
    Intrapulmonary pressure
  114. How does intrapulmonary pressure compare to atmospheric pressure?
    Oscillates around 0 atm
  115. How does intrapleural pressure relate to atmospheric pressure?
    Always negative (-4 to -8 atm) due to pulling action of ribcage and diaphram on parietal pleura
  116. What happens if air enters the pleural space (a pneumothorax) or pressure increases?
    The lungs collapse
  117. What is complians/distensibility?
    Tendency of the lungs to expand
  118. What aids compliance/distensibility?
    Constant pull and resulting negative pressure of the lungs and surfactant
  119. What is elasticity/recoil?
    Process by which lungs return to their original resting volume
  120. What is elasticity/recoil due to?
    Diaphram relaxing
  121. What do restrictive disorder affect?
    Compliance and/or elasticity
  122. How does emphysema affect the lungs?
    Increases compliance (volume inspired) and decreases elasticity (volume expired and gas exchanged)
  123. How does pulmonary fibrosis affect the lungs?
    Decreases compliance and elasticity
  124. What can an alpha-1-anti trypsin deficiency lead to?
    Emphysema and COPD
  125. Which type of disorder decreases vital capacity?
    Restrictive disorders
  126. What type of disorder reduces the size op bronchial passageways interfering with airflow?
    Obstructive disorders
  127. What is a characteristic of bronchitis?
    Inflammation of the bronchial passage
  128. What causes obstructive emphysema?
    A resulting infection and inflammation of the bronchioles due to regular emphysema
  129. Emphysema is typically what type of disease?
  130. What are symptoms of asthma?
    Chronic inflammed airways, constriction, and excess mucus
  131. What type of disease is asthma?
  132. What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
    A mixture of emphysema, bronchitis, and athma
  133. What is the function of the residual volume?
    Keeps alveoli inflated
  134. What is the functional residual capacity (FRC)?
    ERV + RV
  135. What diseas effects FRC and how?
    Emphysema and increases it
  136. What factor of breathing do obstructive disorders affect?
    Rate (ex. FEV1)
  137. What is Dalton's Law?
    The partial pressure of gas in a mixture = the fraction ocupied by the gas X total pressure of mixture
  138. What does increased water vapor do to partial pressures of other gases?
    Decreases them
  139. What is gas exchange due to?
    Concentration gradient of gases
  140. What is the effect of pO2 on hemoglobin saturation called?
    Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
  141. How does pO2 effect hemoglobin saturation?
    Doesn't effect greatly in oxygenated blood, but does in deoxygenated blood
  142. What effect does lowering pH have on hemoglobin saturation?
    Decreases (though greater dissociation of oxygena and hemoglobin)
  143. What is the Bohr effect?
    Describes the result of increased CO2 causing the unloading of O2
  144. What causes the Bohr effect?
    Lowered pH and carbamoino hemoglobin stimulating oxygen unloading
  145. What is the Haldane effect?
    A reduction of oxygen on hemoglobin allowing more CO2 transport
  146. As elevation increases, atmospheric pressure ______.
  147. What is the primary factor in the effect of altitude on hemoglobin?
    2,3 DPG
  148. What doe 2,3-DPG do?
    Attaches to hemoglobin when O2 levels decrease which decreases its affinity for O2
  149. What is the ventilation-perfusion ratio?
    Ratio of alveolar pressure to perfusion of alveolar capillaries
  150. What happens with ventilation-perfusion coupling?
    Alveolar hypoxia (decreased O2) causes local vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying the area
  151. What are the pressures of oxygen in respiration?
    • Inspired air: 160 ppm
    • At alveoli: 100 ppm
    • Deoxygenated blood: 40 ppm
    • Oxygenated blood: 100 ppm
    • Expired air: 120 ppm
  152. What are the pressures of carbon dioxide in respiration?
    • Inspired air: 0.3 ppm
    • Deoxygenated blood: 45 ppm
    • At alveoli: 40 ppm
    • Oxygenated blood: 40 ppm
    • Expired air: 27 ppm
  153. How is pH controlled by ventilation?
    More CO2 removed increases pH and less CO2 decreases pH
  154. Where is the respiratory center located?
    Medulla of the brainstem
  155. What controls fine tuned breathing rate and depth?
    The pons
  156. What type of input does the medulla receive for breathing?
    Messages from chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and from voluntary centers in the brain
  157. What do central chemoreceptors in the medulla respond to?
    Increased pCO2 and H+ concentration
  158. What do peripheral chemoreceptors respond to?
    Most sensitive to decreased pO2 (must be below 60 mmHg)
  159. How do mechanoreceptors regulate breathing?
    Respond to stretch to reglate depth and rate of breathing
  160. What does the Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) do?
    Sends stim (ramp signals) to muscles of inspiration and produces respiratory rhythm
  161. What does the Ventral respiratory group (VRG) do?
    Has inspiratory and expiratory neurons that are active mostly during forced breathing
  162. What repiratory group is active in hyperventilation (ex. exercise)?
  163. What do pneumotaxis centers control?
    When inspiration shifts to expiration (Strong signal decreases inspiration and increases rate)
  164. What is the response of increased blood CO2 and H+/decreased pH?
    Hyperventilation (Increased rate and/or volume)
  165. What is the response of decreased blood CO2 and H+/increased pH?
  166. What is the response of voluntary hyperventilation?
    Decreased blood CO2, increased pH, and decreased stimulus for respiration
  167. What is the response for voluntary hypoventilation?
    Increased blood CO2, decreased pH, and increased stimulus for respiration
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