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traditional family. father, mother, bio kids. not timeless or universal.
kin networks that extend outside or beyond the nuclear family
marriage from within ones social group
marriage from outside ones social group
practice of haing only on partner or spouse
practice of having more than one partner or spouse at a time
multiple wives at one time
multiple husbands at one time
living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning
early modern families
- site for production and consumption
- kinship networks= strong relationships between people related by blood and or marriage
- lateral kinship ties endured
- minimal division of labor between sexes or ages
Families of industrial era
- separate spheres of work and home
- site for consumption only
- gendered division of labor
- increased family mobility= separation from kinship networks
Cult of domesticity
notion that ture womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and childrearing (industrial era)
families post WWII
- model nuclear family idealized by white middle to upper class families
- divorce rate decreased and fertility boom with rampant teenage pregnancies
- decrease in women in workforce
families since the 1970s
- increase in women in work
- decrease in fertility
- increase in divorce
even though 60% of women participate in the workforce women are still disproprotionately responsible for domestic duties.
- 40% of marriages end in divorce.
- 3/4 men and 2/3 women (divorced) remarry
- 90% of all americans get married in their life
- divorce has been increasing steadily since the 19th century
Legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar state provided legal rights and benefits as marriage.
legally recognized unions that guarantee only select rights to dame sex couples
"unmarried with children"
- 1/3 children are born to unwed mothers
- correlation between marital status and child poverty is storng.
- around time of birth most unmarried parents claim they plan to get married but few actually do.
- standards have risen- disadvantaged women set high financial bar for marriage and want partnership of equals
- stigma of failed marriage is far worse than out of wed lock birth
"breaking the last taboo: interracial marrage in america"
- 1967 supreme court ruled laws forbidding people of diff raced to marry were unconstitutional
- rates of interracial marriage have grown
- 4% of married white have nonwhite spouses and 92% of all interracial marriages include a white partner
- most married couples have similar levels of education
the process through which academic social and cultural ideas and tools both general and specific are developed
inability to read or write well enough to be a functioning member of society 14% of US population
having insufficient mathematical skills to function in society. 22% of US population
- non academic socialization and training that takes place in the schooling system
- school pass down calues, beliefs and attitudes that are important in American society
a way of dividing differe students into different classes by ability of future plans
- in 1910 3% of US population had college degree
- in 2004 28% of US population had college degree
Functionalist perspective (higher education)
- rise in college degrees in simply a matter of supply and demand
- jobs required a mare educated workforce
- student were responding to employer demand
- critique: many americans have more education than they need for their occupations
conflict perspective (higher education)
- education= elite status
- as education expeanded members of elite group had to obtain more and more education to set themselves apart
- credentialism: an overemphasis on credentials for signaling social status or qualifications for a job. increased credentials does not reflect increase in skills needed for particular jobs
- advocates: predict freshmen year GPA, class rank, likelihood of graduation, potential for college success above and beyond typical measures
- critics: do not predict college outcomes above highschool grades and class rank. only works for white students. SAT scores are correlated with race ethnicity and class and family background
set of policies that grant a preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population- typically women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities.
Inequalities in schooling
minority and lower class students are: disporportionately place in lower tracks, subject of less favorable teacher expectation, consistently score lower on the SAT
symbolic and interactional recourses that people use to thier advantage in carious situations
"the black-white test score gap"
- from 1970-1990 test gap went down by 40%
- to close the gap we need smaller class sizes, emphasis on phonics instruction, addressing african american childrens needs during preschool years, improve quality and quantity of preschool instruction and early intervention (starting at 12 months)
matriculation into colleges
- normal schools: varsity sports, student gov., dance and music classes
- elite schools: yearbook or school newspaper, hobby club, parents visited art museums regularly.
- results: grades and test scores= more important than extra curricular activities. for elite schools most important factor is family background.