BIO FINAL

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datgrl_honey
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120481
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BIO FINAL
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2011-12-04 21:47:25
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BIO FINAL
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BIO FINAL
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  1. NAME 3 TYES OF MOLECULAR BONDS AND DESCRIBE HOW THESE BONDS ARE FORMED. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ELECTRONS
    IONIC BOND-GIVING UP AN ELECTRON ;RESULTING IONS BOND DUE TO THEIR CHARGES

    COVELANT - SHARING OF ELECRONS

    HYDROGEN BOND - WEAK BONDING DUE TO ATTRACTION BETWEEN PARTIAL CHARGES OF A HYDROGEN AND AN ELECTONEGATIVE ATOM LIKE OXYGEN
  2. WHY IS WATER POLAR AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN WE SAY WATER IS POLAR
    BECAUSE OF AN UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS BETWEEN THE HYDROGEN AND OXYTGEN ATOMS. THE ELECTRONS OF HYDROGEN SPEND MORE TIME NEAR THE OXYGEN ATOM WHICH IS ELECTONEGTIVE. THIS MEANS THAT WATER IS LIKE A MINI MAGNET AND IT IS PORISITIVE NEAR THE HYDROGENS AND NEGATIVE NEAR OXYGEN
  3. WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN WE SAY THAT SOMETHINGS ACTS AS A PH BUFFER?
    THIS MEANS THAT IF PROTONS (ACIDS:H+) OR DYROXYLS (BASES: OH-) ARE ADDED TO A BUFFER THERE IS A RNACE WHERE THE PH WILL CHANGE VERY LITTLE
  4. DRAW OR DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 3 TYPES OF ISOMERS
    STRUCTURAL-SAME STRUTCTURAL FORMULA (NUMBER OF EACH ATOM) BUT DIFFER IN THE COVELANT ARRANGEMENT OF THEIR ATOMS

    GEOMETIC-SAME STRUCTURAL FORMULA BUT DIFFER IN ARRANGEMTN ABOUT A DOUBLE BOND

    ENANTIOMERS- SAME STRUCTURAL FORMULA BUT MIRROR EACH OTHER
  5. NAME THE SEVEN FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HYROCARBONS (DRAW THEM)
    • METHYL
    • HYDROXYL
    • CARBONYL
    • CARBOXYL
    • AMINO
    • SULFHYDRYL
    • PHOSPHATE
  6. EXPLAIN THE FOUR LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE: PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY STRUCTURE
    PRIMARY -AMINO ACID SEQUENCE: PEPTIDE BONDS

    SECONDARY-BETA PLEATED SHEETS AND APLHA HELICES; HYDROGEN BOUNDS OF THE PEPTIDE BACKBONE

    TERTIARY-OVER ALL SHAPE DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AMINO ACID SIDE GROUPS (R-)

    QUATERNARY- TWO OR MORE POLYPETIDE CHAINS (SUBUNITS) AGGREATION INTO ONE FUNCTIONAL MOLECULE
  7. NAME FOUR PARTS OF A CELL AND LIST AT LEASET ONE FUNCTION OF EACH
    ROUGH ER

    SMOOTH ER

    NUCLEOLUS

    NUCLEUS

    MITOCHONDRIA

    GOLGI APPARATUS

    CENTROSOME

    MICROBILLI

    NUCLEAR ENVELPE

    PLASMA MEMBRANE

    ETCETERA
  8. EXPLAIN THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL BE SURE TO IDENTIFY THE "FLUID" PART AND THE "MOSAIC" PART
    A METHOD USED TO EXPLAIN HOW MEMBRANES FUNCTION. THE MEMBRANE IS A FLUID STRUCTURE WITH PROTEIN "MOSAICS" IMBEDDED IN ITS PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
  9. EXPLAIN WHAT THE ENERGY OF ACTIVATIONS IS AND ITS ROLE IN EXERGONIC REACTIONS: DRAW A PICTURE
    THE NEERGY OF ACTIVATION IS THE ENERGY THAT IS REQUIRED TO GET A EXERGONIC REACTION GOING. LIKE A SMALL HILL PRIOR TO A LONG DOWNHILL
  10. EXPLAIN HOW GLYCOLYSIS, THE TCA CYCLE ( KRE'BS CYCLE OR CITRIC ACID CYCLE, THE ETC, THE LIGH REACTION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND THE CALVIN CYCLE INTERACTION. WHICH PRODUCTS FEED INTO WHICH REACTIONS
  11. EXPLAIN 3 CLASSES OF CELL SIGNALING
    PARACRINE SIGNALING

    SYNAPTIC SIGNALING

    HORMONAL SIGNALING
  12. WHICH PROPERTIES OF NORMAL CELLS DO CANCER CELLS LOSE?
    CONTACT INHIBITION

    ANCHORAGE DEPENDENCE

    DONT OBEY CELL CYCLE CONTROL POINTS
  13. NAME 3 MAJOR MECHANISMS OF GENETIC VARIATION THAT MIGHT GIVE AN ADVANTAGE TO A SEXUAL REPRODUCING ORGANISM DURING TIMES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE. BE SURE TO MENTION WHERE THESE EVENTS OCCUR. (WHERE IN THE CELL CYCLE/STAGE? BE SPECIFIC)
    ROSSING OVER AT PROPHASE I OF MEIOSIS

    RANDOM SORTING OF HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES AT ANAPHASE OF THE FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION

    RANDOM SELECTION OF GAMES AT FERTILIZATIONS
  14. IF THE GENE FOR GREE THUMB (A RECESSIVE DISORDER) IS ON THE X CHROMOSOME AND A FEMALE CARRIER MATES WITH A NON-AFFECTED MALE WHAT PERCENT OF THEIR OFFSPRING WOULD BE 1 MALE CARRIERS (2)FEMALE CARRIERS (3) AFECTED MALES AND (4)AFFECTED FEMALES? DRAW THE CORRECT PUNNETT SQUARE
  15. EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF REPLICATION BE SURE TO USE ALL 7 IMPORTANT ENZYMES IN DNA REPLICATION. LIST THE ENZYMES AND TELL WHAT THEY DO IN CORRECT ORDER
    HELICASE

    TOPOISOMERASE

    SINGLE STRAND BINDING PROTEIN

    PRIMASE

    DNA POLYMERASE III

    DNA POLYMERASE I

    LIGASE
  16. EXPLAIN TRANSLATION BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE START AND STOP AND WHAT HAPPENS AT THE 3 RIBOSOMAL SITES
  17. LIST 4 METHODS OF POST- TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION
    ALRERNATE RNA SPLICING

    MRNA DEGRADATION

    INITIATION OF TRANSLATION

    PROTEIN PROCESSING AND

    DEGRADATION
  18. EXPLAIN THE LYTIC AND LYSOGENIC CYCLES OF A TEMPERATE PHAGE
  19. EXPLAIN THE 4STEPS TO DNA CLONING AND THE TECHNOLOGY USED FOR EACH STEP
    ISOLATE DNA OF INTEREST (SAY A GLOWING GENE) AND CUT IT AND THE VECTOR (USUALLY A VIRUS OR PLASMID) WITH A RESTRICTION ENZYME

    LIGATE THE DNA OF INTEREST TO THE VECTOR WITH DNA LIGASE

    TRANSFORM THE BACTERIA WITH THE DNA OF INTEREST TO THE VECTOR WITH DNA LIGASE

    TRANSFORMATION THE BACTERIA WITH THE DNA USING CaCl2 AND HEAT SHOCKING TO ALLOW THE BACTERIA TAKE UP THE DNA (COMPETENCE)

    SELECT FOR BACTERIA THAT TOOK UP THE PLASMID BY PLATING ON THE ANTIBIOTIC CONTAINING AGAR AND THEN SELECT THE COLONIES WITH THE CORRECT INSERT (DNA OF INTEREST) USING SOME SORT OF IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (GLOWING, BLUE VS WHITE COLONIES)

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