Risk Assessment

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  1. What is Risk?
    • joint probabilities of an occurence of an event and its consequences
    • Risk = Likelihood of occurrence x Consequences
  2. what are the 3 types of Risk?
    • 1) Perceived through science. (ie. cholera)
    • 2)Perceived directly. (ie. climing a tree)
    • 3) Virtual risk. (ie. global warming)
  3. What is Risk Assessment?
    • Asks the questions:
    • what can go wrong?
    • What is the likelihood that it will go wrong?
    • What are the consequences?
  4. What is Risk Management?
    • Asks the questions:
    • What can be done?
    • What options are available?
    • What are the impacts on the future?
  5. What is a Hazard?
    A situation, which poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment.
  6. What are 4 types of Hazards?
    • 1) Dormant - nothing is currently affected
    • 2) Active - Hazard is certain to effect without intervention
    • 3) Mitigated - hazards are identified and prevented
    • 4) Potential - hazard is in the position to affect
  7. What is Human Health Risk Assessment HHRA? and What are its 4 elements?
    The probability that exposure to a hazard will lead to negative consequences such as cancer.

    • 1) Hazard identification
    • 2) Toxicity Assessment
    • 3) Exposure assessment
    • 4) Risk Characterization
  8. What is Hazard Identification?
    The process of determining whether or not a particular chemical is linked to a particular health effect
  9. What is an Exposure Assessment?
    Determin pathways for the toxic agent and find the concentrations of the toxic agent in the pathways.
  10. What is an Toxicity Assessment?
    Quantify the relationships between the intesity of the activity in question and the adverse effects.
  11. What is a lethal Dose (LD50)?
    Dosage that will kill 50% of organisms. Higher the better.
  12. What is the difference between Cancer and non-cancer risk?
    • Non-cancer risk has a thresh hold.
    • Cancer has an estimated outcome.
    • Non- cancer risk is calculated over the period being exposed, not over lifetime.
  13. What is a Reference Dose (RfD)?
    Used for non cancer risk assessment.
  14. What does NOAEL stand for?
    No Observed Adverse Effects Level.
  15. What does LOAEL stand for?
    Low Observed Adverse Effects Level.
  16. What is an Epidemiological Study?
    A 2X2 matrix with exposed, not exposed, with disease, without disease. helps find the relationship between exposure and disease.
  17. What is Relative Risk (RR)?
    • Shows an association between risk and exposure
    • RR > 1, there is a causal link between exposure and disease
  18. What is Attribute Risk (AR)?
    • Shows an association between exposure and risk
    • AR = 0, no association between exposure and risk
  19. What is Od Ratio (OD)?
    • Shows the association between risk and exposure.
    • OD > 1 means there is an association between risk and exposure.
  20. What is Potency Factor (PF)?
    Used to calculate cancer risk. EP has tabulated the Potency factor of some carcenagens.
  21. What is Chronic Daily Intake (CDI)?
    Is the dose of the contaminant averaged over an entire lifetime.
  22. How to calculate Hazard Quotient (HQ)?
    HQ = ADD / Rfd

    • HQ<1 no risk of adverse effects
    • HQ>1 adverse effects may occur
  23. What is Bio Concentration Factor (BCF)?
    • The fraction of concentration of toxin in an animal(fish) divided by the concentration of toxin in its environment(water).
    • The smaller the better.
    • BCF = Cf/Cw
  24. What are the 4 steps to Risk Management?
    • 1) Risk Identification
    • 2) Risk Assessment - likelihood and consequense
    • 3) Risk Planning - avoid, minimize, backup plan
    • 4) Risk Monitoring - assess each risk over time
  25. What is a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)?
    failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using boolean logic to combine a series of lower level events.

    • 1) identify faults
    • 2) identify causes
    • 3) find root of cause
    • 4) identify countermeasures for each root
  26. What is an Event Tree Analysis?
    a system safety analytical technique
  27. What is a Bow-Tie Analysis?
    A diagram consisting of hazards on the left, Critical Event in the cenre, and consequences on the right.
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Risk Assessment
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