Western Civ Final

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  1. What economic, political, religious, and cultural developments made the fourteenth century an age of adversity? (Question will ask for specific examples from TWO of those four general catagories)
    Essay 1
    • Black death caused economic crisis because millions of deaths caused production of food and goods to plummet and some prices to soar.
    • Strange religious practices like people beating themselves to try to make God take away the plague
    • Economic tensions caused social tensions that escalated into rebellions. Political changes like legislation that tied peasants to the land, raised taxes, and froze wages.
    • 100 year war caused political unrest between kings of England and France.
  2. Describe three of the responses to the Black Death included in the selection from the chronicle of Jean de Venette’s
    Essay 1
    • 1. Because the labor supply decreased relative to demand, peasants who survived the Black Death could demand higher wages.
    • 2. The landed aristocracy who employed the peasant laborers and controled Parliament, enacted legislation to freeze wages at their pre-plague levels. (Statue of Laborers)
    • 3. Wage controls and other repressive measures dash peasants' hopes and they revolt.
  3. What were the reasons, provisions, and effects of the English Statute of Laborers?
    Essay 1
    1. The black death killed a lot of England's peasant labor force. "The Chronicle" of Henry Knighton

    • 2. Because the labor supply decreased relative to demand, the surviving peasants could demand higher wages. "Post plague wages were 8 pence for a reaper instead of 2 pence. The Chronicle and Statutes of the Realm"
    • 3. The landed aristocracy was losing their workforce who also lived on their land and paid rent. To stop the loss of money, they enacted the Statute of Laborers.
    • 4. The Statute of Laborers froze wages at their pre-plague level. So reapers who were getting 8 pence could now only get 2 pence. "Statutes of the Realm"
    • 5.The immediate effect was that they couldn't enforce the freezeing of the wages. They revolted which was the long term effect. (The English Peasant Revolt) "The Chronicles" of Jean Froissart
  4. Explain the theory of the "two swords" advanced by the medieval church
    Essay 2
    • The two swords refers to the church and state
    • it refers to the metaphor in Luke 22:38 (The disciples said, "See, Lord, here are two swords." "That is enough," he
    • replied)
    • according to the pope the spiritual sword is above the temporal(state) sword and he (the pope) has both swords in his power. Rulers and Kings only exercise the authority that the pope entrusts to them at the pope's pleasure (meaning he could take it away if he wanted to)
    • in the middle ages, separation of church and state didn't really make sense. That's why the state has to share it's power with the church, which ultimately has the final say.
  5. explain the issues and outcomes of the quarrel between Boniface VIII and Philip IV.
    Essay 2
    • There were 2 issues. The first was taxation of land and the second was jurisdiction of the courts.
    • 1. A lot land in France is owned by the church. Philip IV said taxes on that land went to him because the land was in his country. Pope Boniface VIII said taxes on church lands went to the church.
    • Pope Boniface eventually had to back down when he realized he would not win. He tried to save face by saying that the money couldn't be given to the king without his permission which he coincidentially granted.
    • 2. There were 2 legal systems. A church court and a king's court. The issue was what happens if a churchman commits a crime? Which court should he be tried in?
    • The king says if the man is in his kingdom he should be tried in his court. The Pope says if it is a churchman he should be tried in the church's court.
    • Again Boniface has to back down but this time before he does he basically threatens the king that there's only 1 church and you can't get salvation from it unless you are subject to the pope. The king got so mad that he had the pope arrested.
  6. The Great Schism: what was it, what caused it, what ended it?
    Essay 2
    • It was this time where there were 2 popes and the church was split.
    • The papacy was moved to the French city Avingnon as a result of Bonaface being arrested.There's a whole bunch of french popes. Eventually the papacy was returned to Rome because the french popes were ruining the church's image by living in luxury.
    • Once in Rome they elected a new pope, Urban VI who was bad and mean. The Cardinals realized what they did and elected a new pope, Clement VII but Urban wouldn't step down and excomunicated Clement to Avignon. Now there were 2 popes.
    • this split the church geographically with supprters of Clement in Avignon and Urban in Rome. Each pope excommunicated the followers of the other so everyone was excommunicated.
    • they tried to fix it with the Conciliar movement which took some of the power from the pope and give it to a general council. The council of Pisa deposed Clement and Urban and elected a new pope.
    • But neither Clement or Urban would recognize the descision so then there were 3 popes. Finally at the council of Basel each of the 3 popes were eaither abdicated or deposed in favor of an appointment by the council and in 1417 the Great Schism ended.
  7. Explain the theory behind the conciliar movement, the situation that gave rise to it, and the reason it was eventually condemned
    Essay 2
    • The Conciliar Movement attempted to transform the papal monarchy into a constitutional system, where the pope's power would be regulated by a general council that represented the clergy.
    • They tried to do this to prevent another Great Schism.
    • It didn't work. The Holy Roman Empire and the French Monarch withdrew their support for the councils so the papacy regained it's authority over the higher clergy.
  8. Identify Wycliffe and Hus, summarize their key teachings, and note the outcome of their cases.
    Essay 2
    • Wycliffe and Hus were heretics of the Late Middle Ages. They challened the medieval church and were the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation
    • Wycliffe challeneged the church in it's position that the only way to salvation was thru the church alone. He stressed a personal relationship between the individual and God and taught that the bible itself, not the church, was the ultimate Christian authority. He hated the wealthy and materialistic-ness of the Papacy and wanted everyone to return to spiritual purity and material poverty of the early church.
    • Hus basically believed the same thing; he advocated vernacular translations of the Bible and didn't like the upper clergy's luxury and immorality.
    • Many of their followers were burned at the state and the men's teachings were declared heretical but the church couldn't crush the followers or stop the teachings.
  9. Explain how the theological synthesis of the High Middle Ages broke down in the Late Middle Ages by comparing the ideas of Thomas Aquinas with those of William of Ockham.

    • in the 14th century Thomas Aquinas' theory that reason helped prove faith started breaking down.
    • He said that reason proved and clarified faith and that it could demonstrate the truth of Christian doctrines with certainty.
    • People said that faith had nothing to do with reason. It was to be believed not proved.
    • William of Ockham was the chief proponent of this new outlook. He said there was no rational foundation to Christianity.
    • To him reason could only say that God probably exists, not prove it with certainty. He wasn't trying to undermine faith; just detach it from reason.
  10. Summarize the three meanings of humanism as it was understood during the Italian Renaissance.


    1. An Educational Curriculum
  11. How does the selection from Petrarch in SWT illustrate his reputation as "the father of humanism"?


  12. Who was Chrysoloras the Byzantine and why was he important to Leonardo Bruni


  13. Explain the Ciceronian educational ideal with reference to Bruni’s comments "On Learning and Literature


  14. Explain what made the northern Renaissance different from the Italian Renaissance, with specific reference to the work of Erasmus


  15. Explain the role of the sacraments and the priesthood in the "monopoly of salvation" claimed by the late medieval church.
  16. Define indulgences and explain their role in the coming of the Protestant Reformation

  17. List the 3 walls of the Romanists described by Luther and show how he attacked them

  18. List and define the three foundational doctrines of Protestantism articulated by Luther

    • 1. Salvation by grace though faith ALONE. (not the church)
    • 2. The sole authority of the scripture. The Bible is the only source of Christian belief and practice, not just whatever the prist says. (very important for comprehensive)
    • 3. The priesthood of all believers. We are all priests and can interpret the Bible for ourselves. We can ask God for forgiveness ourselves. A priest doesn't have to do all these things for us.

  19. Describe the Radical Reformation, noting at least one significant way it was different from the reform movements led by Luther and Calvin

  20. Describe the Catholic Reformation, noting two specific ways it sought to counter the Protestant Reformation.
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Western Civ Final
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