Godlick 1-2.txt

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emm64
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120504
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Godlick 1-2.txt
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2011-12-03 18:57:42
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F2 Goodlick
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F2 Goodlick 1-2
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  1. ´╗┐Enzyme histochemical staining
    • Identification of specific enzyme or enzyme activity using enzyme substrate
    • sections incubated with substrate
    • enzyme reacts with substrate
    • reaction is visualized with color reagent in subsequent step
  2. Immunohistochemistry
    Identification of specific cellular or extracellular components using specific antibodies
  3. Trichrome
    • Three different dyes
    • e.g., Can be used to evaluate fibrosis, status of elastin fibers
    • Elastin = dark purple / black
    • Collagen = blue
    • Muscle = red
    • RBC = Orange
  4. Silver Staining
    • (various methods)
    • Can be used to stain various cells, cellular structures and/or microorganisms
    • e.g., Basal laminas, reticular fibers
  5. Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS)
    • Stains simple and complex carbohydrates deep magenta
    • microvilli-sugar rich cell coat
  6. Hematoxylin
    • Nucleic Acids BLUE
    • a. A "basic" dye (i.e., positively charged)
    • b. Attracted to negatively charged molecules (e.g., nucleic acids)
    • c. Color = BLUE
    • d. Examples of staining: nucleus, rough ER
  7. Eosin
    • a. An "acidic" dye (i.e., negatively charged)
    • b. Attracted to positively charged molecules (e.g., proteins)
    • c. Color = RED
    • d. E.A.R. (Eosin - Acid - Red)
  8. electron micrograph
    bi-layer nature key to compartmentalizing can be appreciated with electron micrograph
  9. mitochondria
    • Energy Production
    • Cell Death
    • Ca2+ Storage
  10. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • SER is More abundant in some cells versus others.
    • It is the site of lipid and steroid synthesis
    • The site of drug detoxification
    • (Example: cytochrome P450 which is abundant on the sER in the Liver).
    • It is important In muscle, for storage & release of Ca2+ (sarcoplasmic reticulum)
  11. Perioxisome
    • Membrane-bound spherical Organelles
    • contain oxidative enzymes like catalase
    • Fatty Acid Metabolism
  12. Nucleus
    • contains most of the cell’s DNA (mitochondria contain some too) as well as RNA and proteins.
    • Surrounded by 2 lipid bilayers.
    • Areas of active transcription are called “Euchromatin” (E).
    • Areas of little or no active transcription are called “Heterochromatin” (H).
    • These can be seen ultrastructurally.
  13. Four types of tissue
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
  14. Epithelium Functions
    • -Barrier
    • Cover exterior surface (skin, eye)
    • Line tubes that connect inside and outside (gut, respiratory)
    • Line internal cavities of the body (peritoneum, pleural cavities, bladder)
    • -Absorption (intestine)
    • -Secretion (salivary or sweat glands)
  15. Typical Epithelium
    • 1. Cells ordered and close together
    • -connections between cells
    • -communication (gap junctions)
    • 2. Polarity
    • -functional
    • -structural-"hats"
    • 3. No direct blood supply
    • 4. Resting on a basement membrane
    • 5. Separated from connective tissue
  16. Epithelium Classification
    • Epithelia are classified by cell shape and cell arrangement on the surface layer
    • Cell layers
    • Simple(1 layer thick)
    • Stratified (2 or more layers thick)
    • Cell height and shape
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
    • Cell height and Shape (the funky category)
    • Pseudostratified
    • Transitional
  17. Simple Squamous
  18. Simple Cuboidal Columnar
  19. Epithelial Classification Table
  20. Stratified Keratinized
  21. Stratified Cuboidal
  22. Transitional Epithelium
  23. Pseudostratified
  24. Epithelial Features that dictate function
    • Polarity
    • Communication
    • Adhesion
  25. Basement membrane
    • part of the extracellular matrix
    • Description
    • Band of amorphous extracellular substance
    • (50-100 nm thick)
    • Separates all epithelium from underlying connective tissue
    • Hard to see by conventional light microscopy
    • Consists of:
    • Type IV collagen
    • Proteoglycans (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate)
    • Glycoproteins (laminin, fibronectin, entactin)
  26. Basement Membrane components
    • Type IV collagen
    • Proteoglycans (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate)
    • Glycoproteins (laminin, fibronectin, entactin)
  27. Basement Membrane Function
    • CRITICAL for normal epithelial cell structure and functiion
    • -Anchor for epithelial cells
    • Adhesion sites = hemidesmosomes
    • Separates all epithelium from underlying connective tissue
    • -Compartmentalization
    • Separates epithelia from connective tissue
    • -Filtration & Diffusion
    • Epithelia is not vascularized
    • -Polarity
    • Induces formation of polarity (basal to apical)
    • -Scaffolding
    • Guide for embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and wound healing
  28. Microvilli
    • Actin filaments
    • Increase surface area for absorption (e.g., small intestine)
  29. Cilia
    • Microtubules (9 + 2 arrangement)
    • They've got the beat (e.g., trachea, bronchi, oviducts)
  30. Microtubules – The Axoneme
    • Extends from a basal body
    • 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules oriented longitudinally
    • Center is 2 complete microtubules surrounded by 9 doublets
  31. Types of Junctions
  32. Tight Junctions
    • (zonula occuludens or occluding junctions)
    • Located apical
    • Polarity (establish functional biochemical domains)
    • Physical barrier
  33. Adhering Junctions
    • zonula adherens
    • Band around cell
    • With-stand physical stress
    • Interact with ACTIN filaments
  34. Desmosomes & Hemidesmosomes
    • (macula adherens or attachment plaques)
    • Spot or disc connections
    • Interact with INTERMEDIATE filaments
  35. Gap Junctions
    • Pores made from connexon
    • Couples cells electrically and metabolically
    • e.g., movement of Ca2+, cAMP, amino acids, etc.
  36. Glands
    • Derivatives of epithelial tissue involved in secretion of products
    • Classification: Secreted product
    • ENDOCRINE
    • Secrete directly into blood stream (e.g., hormones, steroids)
    • Surrounded by blood vessels. (No ducts)
    • EXOCRINE
    • Product secreted into duct or tube (e.g., salivary, pancreas)
    • Mucous: viscous glycoproteins
    • Serous:"watery" protein secretion
  37. Gland Structure Classification
    • -Unicellular
    • e.g., mucous or goblet cell
    • -Multicellular
    • Simple glands (no branches)
    • Compound glands (branches)

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