Godlick 3.txt

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  1. Myoepithelial cells
    • help squeeze out content:
    • Properties of muscle and epithelium
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  2. Connective tissue
    • consists of
    • -Specific cells
    • -Extracellular matrix
    • Extracellular fibers
    • "Ground substance"
    • -Tissues in the body have no empty space
    • -Connective tissue fills the spaces not occupied by epithelium, muscle, and nerve
  3. Connective Tissue Functions
    • To bind and interconnect
    • e.g., ligaments, tendons
    • Support and nourishment
    • e.g., bone, omentum, adipose tissue
    • Compartmentalization
    • e.g., CT around blood vessels
    • Protection
    • e.g., bone, connective tissue of the skin, immune system
    • Storage
    • e.g., adipose tissue, extracellular matrix
  4. PARENCHYMA
    • Cells that carry out the main function of the tissue
    • e.g., Lung: airway and alveoli
    • e.g., Pancreas: exocrine and endocrine glands
  5. STROMA
    • Supporting Tissues / Cells or “STROMA”
    • Includes connective tissue cells
    • Includes connective tissue extracellular matrix
  6. Pancreas Example
    • Within the pancreas, there are two types of glands --
    • Exocrine glands which secrete digestive products into a duct, which ultimately hooks up with other ducts and dumps into the intestine.
    • This exocrine gland is made up of epithelial cells (simple cuboidal) which are resting on an extracellular basement membrane.
    • The duct is composed of epithelial cells as well.
    • Since these glandular cells are conducting one of the functions of the pancreas, they can also be referred to as part of the “Parenchyma” of the pancreas (or “parenchymal cells”).
    • The left image shows a 2 dimensional section of an actual pancreas.
    • Note that the Basement membrane is extracelluloar “connective tissue” so technically is considered “stroma” (I.e., parts of the tissue which helps support the function of the glandular cells.
    • Connective tissue is everything not epithelial cell (muscle or nerve -- note: there is no muscle or nerve shown in these images).
    • So, connective tissue (aka stroma) includes all the white or light pink areas in the images.
    • Connective tissue (aka Stroma)also includes supporting blood vessels and blood (note, however, the the blood vessels themselves are lined by simple squamous epithelial cells called “Endothelial cells”).
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  7. Connective Tissue Proper
    • -Loose Connective Tissue
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    • -Dense Connective Tissue
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    • Irregular
    • Regular
  8. Specialized Connective Tissue
    Bone, cartilage, blood, hemopoietic tissue, lymphatic tissue, adipose tissue (fat)
  9. Extracellular matrix
    • Fibers
    • Collagen
    • Reticular
    • Elastic
    • Ground substance
  10. Collagen
    • ECM
    • -Appearance:
    • Wavy bands
    • Stains with eosin (i.e., red)
    • -Composition
    • Triple polypeptide helix 3 long polypeptide chains
    • Glycoprotein
    • -There are ≥ 16 types of collagen
    • -Produced by fibroblasts
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  11. Reticular Fibers
    • ECM
    • -Appearance
    • Thin, thread-like, loose CT
    • Hard to see with normal H&E staining
    • -Composition
    • Type III collagen
    • Glycoprotein
    • -Produced by Fibroblasts (sometimes by other cells)
    • Smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), Schwann cells (peripheral nerves), reticular cells (lymphoid tissue)
    • -Location
    • e.g., around fat cells, small blood vessels, lymphoid tissue, bone marrow
    • Reticular fibers make up almost a lace-like network.
    • For lymphoid tissues, like the spleen or lymph nodes, the lymphocytes and macrophages live in this lace-like network composed of reticular fibers.
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  12. Elastic Fibers
    • ECM
    • Thin and branching, irregular, Interwoven with collagen
    • -Evolution
    • More recent than other fibers
    • Allowed efficient blood circulation (go team vertebrates!)
    • -Stretchable
    • 1.5 x its length
    • Important for distensible tissue (prevents tearing)
    • -Produced by
    • Fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells
    • -Composition
    • Elastin: globular protein
    • Polymerizes to form amorphous rubbery substance
    • Microfibrils (glycoprotein; e.g., fibrillin)
    • -Locations
    • Elastic arteries, mesentery, skin, lung, elastic ligaments, vertebral column
  13. Marfan's Syndrome
    • ECM Elastic fiber defect
    • Defect in fibrillin gene. Individuals have problems with vasculature
  14. Ground substance
    • Amorphous, viscous substance
    • Composed of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans and adhesive glycoproteins
    • Resists compressive forces
    • Composition
    • Proteoglycans
    • Core protein + GAG
    • Very large
    • Glycoproteins
    • e.g., fibronectin
    • e.g., laminin
  15. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
    • Large unbranched polysaccharide chains
    • Composed of repeating disaccharide units
    • High negative charge
    • Examples: heparin, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid
    • Know in general what glycosaminoglycans are (but you do not need to know the chemical structures)
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  16. Ground Substance Properties & Functions
    • -Highly negative (hydrophilic)
    • Attracts Na+ which sucks in large amounts of water
    • Highly hydrated -- gel-like substance
    • -Gel properties
    • Different pore size; filtration & molecular sieve
    • Diffusion of O2, nutrients, metabolites, hormones, waste etc. from the microvasculature to the cells
    • -Gel properties: Host Defense
    • Inhibit movement of microorganisms
    • -Lubrication
    • -Modulates cell - cell signaling
    • Binds factors - slow release or activation
    • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) + heparin sulfate
    • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-) activity
    • Regulates protease activity
    • -Modulates / affects epithelial cell differentiation and function
  17. Cells which inhabit Connective Tissue
    • Fibroblasts
    • Macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • Adipose cells
    • Blood cells
    • RBC and WBC (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells, monocytes
    • Dendritic cells
  18. Fibroblasts
    • • Elongated, spindly
    • • Most permanent resident of ECM
    • • Synthesize CT fibers and ECM
    • • Secrete factors
    • • Wound healing
  19. Macrophage
    • • Derived from blood monocytes
    • • Reside in tissue
    • • Host defense (innate and immune)
    • • Love to eat
    • • Secrete factors and cytokines
    • • Relatives: alveolar, pleural & peritoneal, kupffer cells, & osteoclasts
  20. Mast Cell
    • • Granules
    • – Histamine
    • – Heparin
    • • Defense
    • • Pathology: allergy
    • • Degranulate with IgE
    • – type I hypersensitivity
  21. Hemopoietic Cells
    • RBC and WBC
    • • lymphocytes
    • – B & T Cells
    • • Neutrophils
    • • Eosinophils
    • • Basophils
    • • Natural killers
  22. Adipose Cells
    • • Fat storage
    • • Cytoplasm is clear
    • • Small nucleus on side
  23. Elastic Fibers
    • made up of two general components: Elastin and microfibrils.
    • This combination forms a rubbery like substance (like rubber cement glue)
    • Elastin:
    • Polymerizes to form amorphous rubbery substance
    • Microfibrils

Card Set Information

Author:
emm64
ID:
120507
Filename:
Godlick 3.txt
Updated:
2011-12-04 00:03:27
Tags:
F2 Goodlick Connective Tissue
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Description:
F2 Goodlick 3 Connective Tissue
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