Godlick 3.txt

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emm64
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120507
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Godlick 3.txt
Updated:
2011-12-03 19:03:27
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F2 Goodlick Connective Tissue
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F2 Goodlick 3 Connective Tissue
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  1. Myoepithelial cells
    • help squeeze out content:
    • Properties of muscle and epithelium
  2. Connective tissue
    • consists of
    • -Specific cells
    • -Extracellular matrix
    • Extracellular fibers
    • "Ground substance"
    • -Tissues in the body have no empty space
    • -Connective tissue fills the spaces not occupied by epithelium, muscle, and nerve
  3. Connective Tissue Functions
    • To bind and interconnect
    • e.g., ligaments, tendons
    • Support and nourishment
    • e.g., bone, omentum, adipose tissue
    • Compartmentalization
    • e.g., CT around blood vessels
    • Protection
    • e.g., bone, connective tissue of the skin, immune system
    • Storage
    • e.g., adipose tissue, extracellular matrix
  4. PARENCHYMA
    • Cells that carry out the main function of the tissue
    • e.g., Lung: airway and alveoli
    • e.g., Pancreas: exocrine and endocrine glands
  5. STROMA
    • Supporting Tissues / Cells or “STROMA”
    • Includes connective tissue cells
    • Includes connective tissue extracellular matrix
  6. Pancreas Example
    • Within the pancreas, there are two types of glands --
    • Exocrine glands which secrete digestive products into a duct, which ultimately hooks up with other ducts and dumps into the intestine.
    • This exocrine gland is made up of epithelial cells (simple cuboidal) which are resting on an extracellular basement membrane.
    • The duct is composed of epithelial cells as well.
    • Since these glandular cells are conducting one of the functions of the pancreas, they can also be referred to as part of the “Parenchyma” of the pancreas (or “parenchymal cells”).
    • The left image shows a 2 dimensional section of an actual pancreas.
    • Note that the Basement membrane is extracelluloar “connective tissue” so technically is considered “stroma” (I.e., parts of the tissue which helps support the function of the glandular cells.
    • Connective tissue is everything not epithelial cell (muscle or nerve -- note: there is no muscle or nerve shown in these images).
    • So, connective tissue (aka stroma) includes all the white or light pink areas in the images.
    • Connective tissue (aka Stroma)also includes supporting blood vessels and blood (note, however, the the blood vessels themselves are lined by simple squamous epithelial cells called “Endothelial cells”).
  7. Connective Tissue Proper
    • -Loose Connective Tissue
    • -Dense Connective Tissue
    • Irregular
    • Regular
  8. Specialized Connective Tissue
    Bone, cartilage, blood, hemopoietic tissue, lymphatic tissue, adipose tissue (fat)
  9. Extracellular matrix
    • Fibers
    • Collagen
    • Reticular
    • Elastic
    • Ground substance
  10. Collagen
    • ECM
    • -Appearance:
    • Wavy bands
    • Stains with eosin (i.e., red)
    • -Composition
    • Triple polypeptide helix 3 long polypeptide chains
    • Glycoprotein
    • -There are ≥ 16 types of collagen
    • -Produced by fibroblasts
  11. Reticular Fibers
    • ECM
    • -Appearance
    • Thin, thread-like, loose CT
    • Hard to see with normal H&E staining
    • -Composition
    • Type III collagen
    • Glycoprotein
    • -Produced by Fibroblasts (sometimes by other cells)
    • Smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), Schwann cells (peripheral nerves), reticular cells (lymphoid tissue)
    • -Location
    • e.g., around fat cells, small blood vessels, lymphoid tissue, bone marrow
    • Reticular fibers make up almost a lace-like network.
    • For lymphoid tissues, like the spleen or lymph nodes, the lymphocytes and macrophages live in this lace-like network composed of reticular fibers.
  12. Elastic Fibers
    • ECM
    • Thin and branching, irregular, Interwoven with collagen
    • -Evolution
    • More recent than other fibers
    • Allowed efficient blood circulation (go team vertebrates!)
    • -Stretchable
    • 1.5 x its length
    • Important for distensible tissue (prevents tearing)
    • -Produced by
    • Fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells
    • -Composition
    • Elastin: globular protein
    • Polymerizes to form amorphous rubbery substance
    • Microfibrils (glycoprotein; e.g., fibrillin)
    • -Locations
    • Elastic arteries, mesentery, skin, lung, elastic ligaments, vertebral column
  13. Marfan's Syndrome
    • ECM Elastic fiber defect
    • Defect in fibrillin gene. Individuals have problems with vasculature
  14. Ground substance
    • Amorphous, viscous substance
    • Composed of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans and adhesive glycoproteins
    • Resists compressive forces
    • Composition
    • Proteoglycans
    • Core protein + GAG
    • Very large
    • Glycoproteins
    • e.g., fibronectin
    • e.g., laminin
  15. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
    • Large unbranched polysaccharide chains
    • Composed of repeating disaccharide units
    • High negative charge
    • Examples: heparin, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid
    • Know in general what glycosaminoglycans are (but you do not need to know the chemical structures)
  16. Ground Substance Properties & Functions
    • -Highly negative (hydrophilic)
    • Attracts Na+ which sucks in large amounts of water
    • Highly hydrated -- gel-like substance
    • -Gel properties
    • Different pore size; filtration & molecular sieve
    • Diffusion of O2, nutrients, metabolites, hormones, waste etc. from the microvasculature to the cells
    • -Gel properties: Host Defense
    • Inhibit movement of microorganisms
    • -Lubrication
    • -Modulates cell - cell signaling
    • Binds factors - slow release or activation
    • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) + heparin sulfate
    • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-) activity
    • Regulates protease activity
    • -Modulates / affects epithelial cell differentiation and function
  17. Cells which inhabit Connective Tissue
    • Fibroblasts
    • Macrophages
    • Mast cells
    • Adipose cells
    • Blood cells
    • RBC and WBC (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells, monocytes
    • Dendritic cells
  18. Fibroblasts
    • • Elongated, spindly
    • • Most permanent resident of ECM
    • • Synthesize CT fibers and ECM
    • • Secrete factors
    • • Wound healing
  19. Macrophage
    • • Derived from blood monocytes
    • • Reside in tissue
    • • Host defense (innate and immune)
    • • Love to eat
    • • Secrete factors and cytokines
    • • Relatives: alveolar, pleural & peritoneal, kupffer cells, & osteoclasts
  20. Mast Cell
    • • Granules
    • – Histamine
    • – Heparin
    • • Defense
    • • Pathology: allergy
    • • Degranulate with IgE
    • – type I hypersensitivity
  21. Hemopoietic Cells
    • RBC and WBC
    • • lymphocytes
    • – B & T Cells
    • • Neutrophils
    • • Eosinophils
    • • Basophils
    • • Natural killers
  22. Adipose Cells
    • • Fat storage
    • • Cytoplasm is clear
    • • Small nucleus on side
  23. Elastic Fibers
    • made up of two general components: Elastin and microfibrils.
    • This combination forms a rubbery like substance (like rubber cement glue)
    • Elastin:
    • Polymerizes to form amorphous rubbery substance
    • Microfibrils

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