The flashcards below were created by user tad on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Alzheimer Disease
    Gradual, progressive mental deterioration.
  2. Parkinson Disease
    Degeneration of neurons; tremors, weakness, and slowness.
  3. Sympathetic Nerves
    Autonomic nerves influence bodily functions under stress.
  4. Parasympathetic Nerves
    Autonomic nerves regulate normal body functions.
  5. Peripheral Nervous System
    Cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
  6. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
    Viral infection of peripheral nerves.
  7. Afferent/Sensory Nerve
    Carries message towards brain.
  8. Efferent (Motor) Nerve
    Carries message from brain to muscle.
  9. Dendrite
    Branching fibre of nerve cell, receives nerve impulse.
  10. CVA
    • Cerebral Vascular Accident
    • Disruption in normal blood supply to the brain (stroke).
    • Thrombotic
    • Embolic
    • Hemorrhagic
  11. Cerebrum
    Voluntary muscles, vision, speech, hearing, memory, etc.
  12. Cerebellum
    Muscle movement and maintains balance.
  13. CNS
    • Central Nervous System
    • Brain and Spinal Cord.
  14. Axon
    Fibre that carries nerve impulse along cell.
  15. Hypothalamus
    Sleep, appetite, body temp, pituitary gland.
  16. Plexus
    Network of nerves.
  17. MS
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Destruction of myelin sheath, replacement with sclerotic tissue.
  18. Palsy
  19. Scabies
    Contagious, parasitic infections of skin with pruritis.
  20. SC
  21. Sz
  22. EENT
    Ears, eyes, nose, throat.
  23. OS, OD
    Left eye, right eye.
  24. AS, AD
    Left ear, right ear.
  25. Glaucoma
    Increased intraocular pressure.
  26. Cataract
    Clouding of lens.
  27. Otitis Media
    Inflammation of the middle ear.
  28. Eczema
    Inflammatory skin disease.
  29. Cellulitis
    Acute infection of skin: heat, redness, pain, and swelling.
  30. TIA
    Transient ischemic attack (gradual occlusion of blood vessels).
  31. ICP
    Intracranial pressure.
  32. Autonomic Nervous System
    Nerves controlling involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, internal organs.
  33. Myasthenia Gravis
    Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder: weakness of voluntary muscles.
  34. Cerebral Contusion
    Bruising of brain tissue; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours.
  35. Medulla Oblongata
    Breathing, heart beat, blood pressure.
  36. ALS
    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    • Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
  37. Gangrene
    Death of tissue due to loss of blood supply.
  38. Urticaria
  39. Polyp
    Benign growth.
  40. Melanin
    Brown-black pigment.
  41. CRF
    Chronic Renal Failure.
  42. ESRD
    End-Stage Renal Disease.
  43. IVP
    Intravenous pyelogram.
  44. CKD
    Chronic Kidney Disease.
  45. ADH
    • Anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin)
    • Raises blood pressure.
    • Increases water absorption in kidneys.
  46. HD
  47. KUB
    Kidney, ureter, bladder (xray).
  48. CAPD
    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
  49. BUN
    Blood urea nitrogen (blood test).
  50. UA
  51. PD
    Peritoneal dialysis.
  52. Nephrolithiasis
    Kidney stones.
  53. Urea, Creatinine
    Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
  54. Meatus
    Opening or canal.
  55. Erythropoietin
    Hormone secreted by kidney to stimulate red blood cell production.
  56. Nephron
    Functional unit of kidney (glomerulus and renal tubule).
  57. Renin
    Hormones secreted by kidney; raises blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
  58. Renal Hypertension
    High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
  59. ERT
    Estrogen replacement therapy.
  60. BPH
    • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    • Benign growth of cells within prostate gland.
  61. Gravida
  62. P; para
  63. OB
    Obstetrics: pertaining to pregnancy and childbirth.
  64. LMP
    Last menstrual period.
  65. LH
    • Luteinizing Hormone
    • (Pituitary Gland)
    • Promotes ovulation.
  66. LEEP
    Loop electrocautery excision procedure.
  67. HCG
    Hormone produced by placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating progesterone and estrogen.
  68. FSH
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • (Pituitary Gland)
    • Stimulate maturation of egg cell.
  69. D&C
    • Dilation and Curettage
    • Widening of cervix and scraping of endometrial lining (biposy).
  70. DRE
    Digital rectal exam.
  71. TURP
    Transurethral resection of the prostate.
  72. PSA
    • Prostate-Specific Antigen
    • Test indicates prostate cancer when PSA levels are high.
  73. GU
  74. Progesterone
    • Produced by ovary and placenta.
    • Maintains development of placenta.
  75. Estrogen
    • (Ovaries)
    • Promotes female secondary sex characteristics; aids in repair of endometrium.
  76. Aspiration
    Withdrawal of fluid.
  77. Fibroids
    Benign tumors in the uterus.
  78. Doppler Ultrasound Study
    Soundwaves measure blood flow.
  79. Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
    Changes in depth of breathing, may be caused by heart failure or brain damage.
  80. V/Q Scan
    Lung scan.
  81. Exudate
    Fluid, bloodcells, debris.
  82. Emphysema
    Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of aveolar walls (COPD).
  83. Asthma
    Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder.
  84. Adventicious Sounds
    Abnormal breathing sounds: Pleural rub, rales, rhonchi, stridor, wheezes.
  85. Pertussis
    Whooping cough.
  86. Chronic Bronchitis
    Inflammation of bronchi (COPD).
  87. Pleurisy
    Inflammation of pleura.
  88. Pneumothorax
    Collection of air in the pleural space.
  89. Cystic Fibrosis
    Inherited disorder; thick mucus secretions don't drain properly.
  90. Endotracheal Intubation
    Placement of a tube through mouth to trachea to establish airway.
  91. PFT
    Pulmonary Function Test.
  92. Tube Thoracostomy
    Chest tube passed through opening in chest to drain pleural effusion.
  93. DPT
    Diptheria, pertussis, tetanus.
  94. CABG
    Coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
  95. DVT
    Deep Vein Thrombosis
  96. TEE
    Transesophageal echocardiography.
  97. HDL
    High Density Lipoproteins (prevent atherosclerosis).
  98. LDL
    Low Density Lipoproteins (associated with atherosclerosis).
  99. SOB
    Shortness of breath.
  100. MI
    Myocardial infarction (heart attack).
  101. HTN
    Hypertension (high blood pressure).
  102. CV
  103. CPR
    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
  104. CCU
    Coronary Care Unit.
  105. CHF
    • Congestive Heart Failure.
    • Heart is unable to pump adequate amount of blood.
  106. Artery
    Carries oxygenated blood away from heart.
  107. Atrium
    Upper chamber of the heart.
  108. CO2
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Waste gas released from body cells.
  109. MVP
    Mitral Valve Prolapse.
  110. Endarterectomy
    Surgical removal of plaque from inner layer of artery.
  111. Stents
    Expandable slotted tube that serve as scaffolding to hold open arteries.
  112. Aspirin
    Prevents clumping of platelets.
  113. PE
    Pulmonary Embolism.
  114. Pulmonary Edema
    Fluid accumulation in lungs.
  115. Pulmonary Vein
    Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to heart.
  116. Ventricle
    Lower chamber of the heart.
  117. Vein
    Carries deoxygenated blood to heart.
  118. Angina
    Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia.
  119. Pulmonary Artery
    Carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs.
  120. Pulmonary Circulation
    Flow of blood from heart to lungs and back to heart.
  121. Sinoatrial Node
    • SA Node.
    • Nervous tissue that begins heart beat.
  122. Systole
    Contraction of heart.
  123. Diastole
    Relaxation of heart.
  124. ABG's
    Arterial Blood Gases.
  125. CF
    Cystic Fibrosis.
  126. COPD
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    • Airway obstruction (emphysema and chronic bronchitis).
  127. TB
    • Tuberculosis.
    • Infectious bacterial disease.
  128. URI
    Upper Respiratory Infection.
  129. Diphtheria
    Acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract.
  130. Pneumonia
    Acute inflammation of aveoli.
  131. AFB
    • Acid-Fast Bacillus.
    • Causes Tuberculosis.
  132. RSV
    Respiratory Synctial Virus.
  133. Digoxin
    Treats arrhythmias and strengthens heartbeat (lanoxin).
  134. Nitroglycerin
    Treat angina.
  135. CAD
    • Coronary Artery Disease.
    • Disease of arteries surrounding heart.
  136. UA
    Unstable angina.
  137. ECHO
    • Echocardiography.
    • Soundwaves produce image of heart.
  138. Croup
    Acute viral infection; barking cough and stridor.
  139. Atelectasis
    • Collapsed lung.
    • Obstruction of bronchus or accumulation of air or fluid in pleural cavity.
  140. MUGA
    • Multiple-Gated Acquistion Scan.
    • Test of heart function.
  141. RDS
    • Respiratoy distress syndrome.
    • Newborn condition; dyspnea and cyanosis.
  142. PEJ Tube
    Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy Tube.
  143. PEG Tube
    Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube.
  144. NG Tube
    Nasogastric tube.
  145. IBD
    Inflammatory Bowen Disease (Chron's and Ulcerative Colitis).
  146. LFT
    Liver Function Test
  147. GB
  148. GERD
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.
  149. GI
  150. G Tube
    Gastrostomy Tube.
  151. BM
    Bowel Movement.
  152. BE
    Barium Enema.
  153. ALT; AST
    Liver function tests.
  154. TPN
    Total Parenteral Nutrition
  155. Lipase
    Pancreatic enzyme; digests fats.
  156. Crohn Disease
    Chronic inflammation of intestinal tract.
  157. IBS
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
    • GI symptoms associated with stress.
  158. Ulcerative Colitis
    Chronic inflammation of colon with ulcers.
  159. Lower Esophageal Sphincter
    Muscles between esophagus and stomach.
  160. Liver
    Secretes bile, stores sugar, iron, and vitamins.
  161. Diverticulosis
    Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall.
  162. Cirrhosis
    Chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
  163. Pancrease
    • Insulin
    • Glycagon
    • Enzymes for digestion
  164. Insulin
    • (Pancreas)
    • Lowers blood sugar.
  165. Hematochezia
    Passage of fresh red blood from rectum.
  166. Ascites
    Accumulation of fluid in abdomen.
  167. Melena
    Black tarry stool; feces containing digested blood.
  168. Achalasia
    Failure of lower esophagus sphincter to relax.
  169. Volvulus
    Twisting of intestine on itself.
  170. Intussception
    Telescoping of intestines.
  171. Dysentery
    Inflammaed intestines caused by bacterial infection.
  172. AIDS
    • Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome
    • Suppression of immune system.
  173. HIV
    • Human ImmunoDeficiency Virus
    • Causes AIDS.
  174. ELISA
    Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies.
  175. ESR
    • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
    • Time it takes erythrocytes to settle out of plasma.
  176. NSAID
    Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
  177. IM
  178. Heparin
    Natural anticoagulant.
  179. PTT
    • Partial Thromboplastin Time
    • Measures clotting factors.
  180. PT
    • Prothrombin Time.
    • Used to monitor patients on anticoagulants.
  181. SLE
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    • Chronic inflammatory disease involving everything.
  182. Fontanelle
    Soft spot in skull of newborns.
  183. ANA
    • Antinuclear antibody.
    • Indicator of Lupus.
  184. EMG
    • Electromyography.
    • Recording of the strength of muscle contraction.
  185. ACL
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament of the knee.
  186. Hodgkin Disease
    Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and spleen.
  187. Immunoglobulin
    Protein IgA,etc.
  188. Osteoporosis
    Decrease in bone density.
  189. Anaphylaxis
    Extreme hypersensitivity reaction.
  190. Spleen
    Lymph tissue. Produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells.
  191. Coumadin
    Prevent formation of clots (warfarin).
  192. Apheresis
    Separation of blood into component parts.
  193. CTS
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
  194. Muscular Dystrophy
    Progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibres.
  195. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Chronic joint inflammation and pain.
    • Autoimmune reaction.
  196. Antibody
    Protein produced in respons to antigens.
  197. Antigen
    Foreign substance stimulates production of antibody.
  198. Osteoarthritis
    Progressive, degenerative joint disease.
  199. Gouty Arthritis
    Inflammation of joints due to excess uric acid in body.
  200. TMJ
    Temporomandibular joint.
  201. DIC
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.
    • Reduction in clotting factors.
  202. PCV
    Packed cell volume.
  203. Hgb
    Hemoglobin in blood sample.
  204. Hct
    Hematocrit. Erythrocytes in volume of blood.
  205. Ortho
  206. PT
    Physical Therapy.
  207. Blood Dyscrasia
    Abnormal condition of the blood.
  208. Pyrexia
  209. Periosteum
    Membrane surrounding bone.
  210. Orthopedist
    Treats bone and joint diseases surgically and medically.
  211. Plasma
    Liquid portion of blood.
  212. Hemoglobin
    Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
  213. Sarcoma
    Malignant tumor.
  214. Plasmapheresis
    Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood.
  215. Suture
    Immmovable joint between bones, ex skull.
  216. Albumin
    Protein in blood; maintains balance of water in blood.
  217. Dorsiflexion
    Foot bends up.
  218. Plantar Flexion
    Foot bends down.
  219. Supination
    Palm up.
  220. Pronation
    Palm down.
  221. Sprain
    Trauma to joint.
  222. Strain
    Overstretching a muscle.
  223. Subluxation
    Partial dislocation.
  224. Lymph Node
    Collection of solid lymphatic tissue.
  225. Lymph
    Watery fluid within lymphatic vessels.
  226. Packed Red Cells
    Whole blood with most of the plasma removed.
  227. Myeloma
    Malignant neoplasm of bone marrow.
  228. Rheumatologist
    Specializes in joint problems.
  229. Cushing Syndrome
    Excess cortisol (Adrenal Gland).
  230. Addison Disease
    Underfunctioning of Adrenal Cortex.
  231. A1C
    Diabetic blood test.
  232. HbA1C
    Test for glucose (diabetic blood test).
  233. SIADH
    Syndrome of inappropriate ADH.
  234. TFT
    Thyroid Function Test.
  235. FBS
    Fasting Blood Sugar.
  236. IDDM
    • Type 1.
    • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
  237. NIDDM
    • Type 2.
    • Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
  238. BGM
    Blood Glucose Monitoring.
  239. Cortisone
    Synthetically prepared, similar to Cortisol. Used to treat inflammatory conditions.
  240. Conversion
    Anxiety becomes bodily symptom with no physical basis.
  241. ECT
    Electroconvulsive Therapy.
  242. ADLs
    Activities of Daily Living.
  243. Hyperparathyroidism
    Excess parathormone (hypercalcemia).
  244. Hypoparathyroidism
    Deficient parathormone (hypocalcemia).
  245. Hypothyroidism
    Underactivity of the thyroid (slow metabolism).
  246. Hyperthyroidism
    • Graves Disease.
    • Overactivity of thyroid (high metabolism).
  247. Glucagon
    • (Pancreas)
    • Raises blood sugar.
  248. Calcitonin
    • (Thyroid)
    • Decreases blood calcium levels.
  249. PTH
    • (Parathyroid)
    • Parathyroid Hormone.
    • Increases blood calcium.
  250. Cortisol
    • (Adrenal Cortex)
    • Increases blood sugar.
  251. T3, T4
    • (Thyroid)
    • Increases metabolism.
  252. Aldosterone
    • (Adrenal Cortex)
    • Regulates salt.
  253. Thymus Gland
    Thymosin - development of immune response in new borns.
  254. Pineal Gland
    Melatonin - supports body's biological clock.
  255. Parathyroid Glands
    Parathormone - Increases blood calcium.
  256. Thyroid Gland
    • T3, T4 - Increases metabolism.
    • Calcitonin - Decreases blood calcium levels.
  257. Adrenal Cortex
    • Cortisol - Increases blood sugar.
    • Aldosterone - Regulates salte.
    • Androgens.
  258. Pancreas
    • Glucagon - Increases blood sugar.
    • Insulin - Decreases blood sugar.
  259. Pituitary Gland
    • GH
    • FSH
    • LH
    • ADH
Card Set
Study Flashcards
Show Answers