ENV 10

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dante01
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ENV 10
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2011-12-07 16:53:35
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  1. How along did the solar system form?
    4.5 billion years ago
  2. According to the big bang, the universe was created about _________
    14 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions.
  3. The models must fit 3 classes of constraints:
    • (1) Motions: The observed spin and orbital motions of the planets, asteroids, and comets.
    • (2) Compositions: The measured or inferred compositions of planets, asteroids (meteorites), and comets.
    • (3) Ages: The measured ages of primitive meteorites.
  4. Planets, asteroids, and most comets circle the Sun ______
    counter-clockwise
  5. The compositions of the planets vary with distance from the Sun:
    • –The inner planets are dense and rocky/metal-rich.
    • –The outer planets are primarily gas (H, He) and ices.
  6. The solar nebula model
    • 1. Previous generations of stars lived and died before our solar system was formed.
    • 2. The solar system was born from an enormous cloud that collaspsed of hydrogen, helium, tiny amounts of heavier elements, and interstellar dust particles
    • 3. mostt mass fell into the center and formed the sun and a smaller fraction formed the planets.
  7. Inside a terrestrial planet
    • Crust:
    • -lower density
    • -Continental: granitic
    • -oceanic: basalt
    • Mantle:
    • -medium density
    • -iron-rich silicates
    • lithosphere:
    • - crust: iron and nickel
  8. Composition of the earth and crust
    • About 90% of Earth consists of only four elements:
    • 1. iron,
    • 2. oxygen,
    • 3. silicon,
    • 4. magnesium.
    • -Iron makes up 35% of the Earth’s mass, but most sank to the core, little at the crust
  9. Early Earth
    • -lacked oceans
    • -lacked atmosphere
    • -heated up and was molten
    • -target of many impacts
  10. Multicelled creatures appear
    1 billion years ago
  11. Vertebrates appear about
    500 million years ago
  12. land plants appear about
    400 million
  13. human beings appear
    2-4 milion years ago
  14. modern human(homo sapiens) appear
    500,000
  15. What two properties uniquely define a particular mineral?
    • 1. chemical composition
    • 2. Crystal structure
  16. What are two principal classes of sedimentary rocks?
    • 1. Clastic
    • 2. Chemical
  17. Silica Tetrahedron
    • •4 Oxygen atoms held covalently to a single silicon atom.
    • •The tetrahedra may then bond:
    • –covalently with other tetrahedra (sharing Oxygens) or
    • –ionically with other combinations.
  18. Galena
    • -the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide
    • -It is the most important lead ore mineral.
    • -contain significant amounts of silver
  19. Fluorite
    • - colorful mineral
    • - found in hydrothermal veins
    • - used as a flux in iron smelting
  20. quartz
    glass manufacturing
  21. feldspar
    • -ceramic manufacturing
    • -the most abundant group of minerals in the crust
  22. Mica
    • 1. Muscovite(white mica)
    • 2. Biotite(black mica)
  23. Clays
    • used as drilling mud, in building materials, and as a soil modifier
  24. Ferromagnesian silicates
    • 1. Olivine – peridot (semiprecious gem)
    • 2. Garnet – abrasives; semiprecious gems
    • 3. Amphibole – industrial products
  25. Halite
    • - table salt
    • - not a silicate
  26. Types of rocks
    • 1. igneous
    • 2. sedimentary
    • 3. Metamorphic
  27. Igneous rocks
    • -formed from hot, molten material
    • -plutonic rocks: form if magma cools inside earth’s crust (does not flow onto surface); coarse crystals will grow
    • -volcanic rocks: form if magma flows onto surface as lava; glass often forms
    • Ex. Granite, Obsidian
  28. Sedimentary rocks
    • -produced by weathering of pre-existing rocks and minerals
    • Ex. Limestone, Sandstone
  29. foliation
    • -layering caused by deformation
    • 1. minerals form elongated/platy crystal
    • 2. line up parallel to each other
    • 3. examples:
    • •Slate (low grade => lower temeprature and pressure
    • •Schist (higher grade)
    • •Gneiss “nice” (higher yet)
  30. Some metamorphic rocks not foliated
    • –Marble is metamorphosed limestone
    • –Quartzite is metamorphosed quartz-rich sandstone
  31. Metamorphic Rocks
    • 1. "Changed form" rock: formed from pre-existing rocks
    • 2. Heat and pressure increase with depth and cause rock to change
    • Ex. Slate, Schist, Gneiss
  32. Evidence of Continental drift:
    • 1. mid ocean ridge parallel to coastlines
    • 2. precise locations of earthquakes and volcanoes
    • 3. age of rocks on sea floor
    • 4. pattern of glacial deposits on continents
  33. How does the age of the oldestrocks compare with the age of the earth?
    the earth is 1 billion older
  34. Except at boundaries, ________occurs below th eplates in the mushy part of the mantle (“asthenosphere”).
    deformation
  35. Ocean ridges and magnetic stripes mark_______
    places where plates spread apart
  36. Deep trenches and volcanic arcs mark______
    places where oneplate is pushed (subducted) under another.
  37. Rifts
    spreading zone
  38. Transform
    • ex. san andreas fault
    • - fault between offset segments of a spreading ridge
    • -move horizontally in opposite directions
  39. Fracture zone
    • Mid-ocean ridges do not form straight lines but are instead offset in many places by fracture zones
    • -strike-slip
    • -transform
  40. Divergent Plate boundaries
    • – Lithospheric plates move apart; form oceanicridges
    • – Upwelling of asthenosphere injects magmaforming oceanic ridges and new oceanic crust
    • – New oceanic crust cools through Curie Pointand takes on present magnetic field direction
  41. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    • • Lithospheric plates move toward each other
    • • Higher density oceanic crust overridden bylow density continental crust
    • • Subduction zone forms and produces a trench
    • •Subduction of older oceanic crust balancesthe spreading seafloor equation
    • • Subduction zones are active geologic places
    • oVolcanism
    • oEarthquakes
    • oIsland arc formation
  42. Conservative Plate Boundaries
    • • Transform Boundaries
    • – short segments ofa ridge
    • – Transform faults offset ridge
    • – Plates move parallel to boundary, so materialis neither accreted nor subducted
    • – San Andreas Fault
    • – transform fault undercontinental crust
  43. How is the plate tectonic processrelated to environmental science?
    • • Ocean circulation: open/closed passages
    • • Air circulation: orographic affect, monsoon
    • • Evolution: connection or separation ofspecies
    • • Resources: petroleum and metalresources• Passive-active margins, deltas: ch 5
    • • Data: info on past climates, evolution inocean sediments.
  44. Coal: igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary?
    sedimentary
  45. Why are the oceans salty?
    The salt in our oceans is the result of millions of years of minerals leaching and dissolving from the solid earth
  46. Strike-slip
    Occurs in regions where plates slide pasteach other horizontally. Example: SanFrancisco.
  47. Normal
    Occurs under tension, when two plates move away from each other. Generally results in weakest earthquakes. Example:Greece.
  48. Thrust

    Occurs where two plates are pushed together. Generally results in strongest earthquakes. Example: Chile
  49. Where would you expect liquefaction?
    areas where the ground is very wet, near the coast
  50. 5-6 m offset caused by Nobi earthquake, m=8, in Honshu.Japan 1891. What kind of fault is it?
    Thrust fault
  51. Types of seismic wave motion:
    • 1. P-waves: involve compression, parallels the direction of propagation
    • 2. S-waves: cause no change in volume
  52. Factors that affect earthquake damage
    • • Magnitude
    • • Distance (including depth)
    • • Soil type
    • • Frequency of shaking and naturalfrequency of building
    • • Focusing of seismic waves
  53. Sediments act as “wave guide,” trappingwaves_____-
    increasing shaking.
  54. what adds to oceanic crust at spreading centers?
    • 90% of Earth’s volcanism adds to oceanic crust at spreading centers
    • -This occurs largely under the oceans
    • Exception: Iceland
  55. Volumes of volcanic eruptions
    Toba and Mt St Helens
    • Toba: 100km^3
    • Mt St Helens: 1 km^3
  56. Seafloor Spreading ridges
    • Mostly under the oceans ‐ except at Iceland
    • Generally, harmless fissure eruptions
  57. Continental fissure eruptions
    Pour out of cracks in lithosphere, often during continental break‐up“flood basalts”: India, Brazil, East Africa, Columbia Plateau (Washington)
  58. Shield Volcanoes
    Very large, flat, with abundant, far‐reaching flows; Hawaii (hotspot)Fluid magmas: basalt
  59. Volcanic Domes
    • -Steep flanks
    • -Short travel flows
    • -More viscous magmas: intermediate to rhyolite
  60. Volcano Types: dominantly effusive

    • 1. Seafloor Spreading Ridges
    • 2.Continental fissure eruptions
    • 3. Shield volcanoes
    • 4. Volcanic Domes
  61. Few examples on-land: volcanoe
    • - Erta Ale volcano
    • - (East African Rift)
  62. Shield volcanoes Example
    • Example: Mauna Loa (Hawaii)
    • -Tallest mountain on Earth
    • -4 km above sea‐level,
    • 9 km abovesea‐floor
    • -Effusive basalt lava
  63. Domes
    • Example: 2005 “Whaleback” dome growing inside Mt St Helens craterExtremely viscous lava
    • Over‐steepened flanks: can collapse and cause rockfalls andpyroclastic flows
  64. Volcano types: Explosive
    • 1. Cinder Cones
    • 2. Composite "Stratovolcanoes"
    • 3. Calderas
  65. Cinder Cones: moderately explosive
    • -Pyroclastics: ash, cinders, bombs, blocks
    • -Size of pyroclastics range from ash (very fine), cinders, bombs, or blocks(very coarse)
    • -cone shaped volcano; e.g. Pisgah crater near Barstow (California)
  66. Composite "Startovolcanoes"
    • -Mix of lavas and pyroclastics: tall volcano
    • -Usually associated with subduction zones
    • -Explosive: Mount St. Helens, Cascade Range
  67. Calderas
    • -Collapse structures after explosive venting of magma
    • -Wide range in size (km to 10’s of km)
    • -Largest single eruptions on Earth
    • -Long Valley (California), Yellowstone, Toba
  68. What is the most common volcano type on earth's surface?
    Cinder Cones
  69. what type of magma cinder cones have?
    • Explosive basaltic magma
    • -Ballistic ejection of ash, lapilli, bombs and blocks (“fire fountaining”)
  70. Where do stratovolcanoes occur?
    Occur as volcanic chains in subduction zones
  71. How do Calderas form?
    -Form by collapse during explosive venting of magmaaccumulations
  72. Mafic magma
    • (basalt)
    • – low in SiO2 (~50 %) but highin iron, and magnesium
  73. Intermediate magma
    • (andesite, dacite)
    • –intermediate range of SiO2 (50‐65 %), iron, andmagnesium
  74. Felsic magma
    • (rhyolite)
    • – high in SiO2 (up to 76 %)but low in iron, and magnesium
  75. what will affect explosive characteristics of eruptions?
    Amount of volatile gases (H2O, CO2) will affect explosive characteristics of eruptions
  76. High SiO2 content means
    Viscous lava
  77. Volcano: More water means
    more explosive
  78. Magmas at divergent margins
    • - Typically melted asthenosphere material
    • - Low SiO2 and dry: less explosive
    • - Asthenosphere is rich in ferromagnesian (ultramafic)
  79. Magmas at convergent margins
    • -The composition p of the subducted plate +overriding plate determines the composition of the lava
    • - magma rises through lithosphere
    • -explosive eruptions common
    • - in contact with continental crust
  80. How do hot spots produce magmas
    by melting of asthenosphere(no water involved)
  81. Hot‐spots underneath oceanic crust (mafic)produce mostly
    • basaltic magma
    • ex: hawaii
  82. Hot‐spots underneath continental crust (felsic)generally will produce a
    • rhyolitic lava (and often anexplosive one)
    • Example: Yellowstone
  83. lahars
    • volcanic muddflows
    • -ash and water
  84. proclastic flows
    extremely fast and long range smoke
  85. year without summer
    1816
  86. global cooling
    1815 Tambora eruption
  87. Classification by activity
    • Active: erupted in recent geologic history (<10,000 years)
    • Dormant: no recent eruptions but not badly eroded
    • Extinct: no recent eruptions and badly eroded
  88. Assuming the same magma composition and heightof volcano summit, which eruption will cause morecooling?
    A volcano at low (tropical) latitude?
    A volcano at high (polar) latitude?
    a volcano at low tropical latitude
  89. Fast water carries
    more stuff
  90. Hydrosphere
    all water at or near the surface of the earth
  91. stream
    a flowing water within a channel
  92. Drainage basin
    a region from whic a stream draws water
  93. Discharge
    the volume of water flowing past a given point/cross section in a specified length of time
  94. Load
    the total quantity of material that a streamtransports by all methods (traction, saltation,suspended, and dissolved)
  95. Capacity
    a measure of the total load of material astream can move
  96. Gradient
    the steepness of the stream channel
  97. Base level
    the lowest elevation to which the stream can erode
  98. Longitudinal profile
    a sketch of a stream’s elevationfrom source to mouth
  99. Stream velocity impacts sediment sorting
    • – Slow moving water only carries fine-grained sediments
    • – Swift moving water carries a wider range of grain sizes
  100. Delta
    • a large, fan-shaped pile of sediment instill waters created by a stream
    • Ex. mississippi
  101. Alluvial fan
    • a fan-shaped pile of sediment in alarger stream or a region between mountainsand a plain formed by a small tributary stream
    • Ex. albuquerque, NM
  102. Stage
    • The evelation of water
    • -stream exceeds the bank height
  103. Upstream flood
    occurs in a small, localized,upper part of a basin
  104. Downstream flood
    occurs in a larger, lowerpart of a drainage basin
  105. flash flood
    • type of upstream flood
    • -characterized by a rapid rise of stream stage
  106. Hydrograph
    • - a plot of stream discharge at a point over time
    • – Records fluctuations in discharge or streamheight over time
    • – Useful tool to monitor stream behaviorremotely
  107. Restricitve zoning
    similar to strategies applicable to reducing damage from seismic andother geologic hazards
  108. Retention Pond
    trap some of the surface water runoff
  109. Diversion Channel
    comes into play as stream stage rises, and redirects some of the water flowinto other safe places
  110. Channelization
    various modifications of the stream channel itself to increase the velocity of water flow, the volume of the channel, or both
  111. Levees
    raised banks along a stream channel
  112. 1971 Bohla Cyclone
    • • 115 mph winds (Category 3)
    • • Landfall at high tide
    • • Up to 500,000 deaths
    • • Led to violent opposition to government
    • – Creation of Bangla Desh
    • – George Harrison’s Concert for Bangla Desh
  113. Coastal control that has worked
    Polders (reclaimed land) in Zuider Zee, Netherlands. worked for 80 years
  114. Potentiometric surface:
    the level to which the water would rise if uncontained
  115. Mechanical Weathering
    • -Freezing water expansion
    • – Break up of rocks and minerals without changing therock’s composition
    • – Salt crystallization can wedge cracks
    • – Blasting by humans
  116. Chemical Weathering
    • – Dissolution of carbonates and some silicates
    • – Accelerated by sulfuric, carbonic, and other acids
    • – Biological activity: roots, burrowers
  117. Dark soils tend
    to be rich in organic matter
  118. Light soils tend
    to lack organic matter
  119. Aridosol
    iron rich soil formed from Hawaiian basalt
  120. Laterite soil
    • - forms in tropical climates
    • - Forests in tropical areas hold the nutrients,not the soil
    • -extreme version of pedalfer
    • -contains few soluble nutrients
    • -difficult to farm or
  121. wetland soils
    • -rich in accumulated organic matter
    • -privode vital habitats for birds and other organism
    • -retain flood waters easily
    • -serve as pollution traps
  122. Earth materials essential to well being: kg/person year
    – construction, metals: 10,000 kg/person year
  123. Ore
    rock in which a valuable or useful metal occurs to be economic to mine
  124. Black smoker
    chimney formed of precipitated solids onmid ocean ridge.
  125. How much CO2 is emitted per person day in the US?
    – 57 kg/person day
  126. What is the average US consumption of petroleum, ingallons/person day?
    – 3 gallons/person day
  127. What is the ratio of total global resources to consumptionrate, in years?
    • About 30 – 40 years
  128. Tar sands
    • are sedimentary rockscontaining a very thick, semi-solid, tarlikepetroleum.
    • - Tar sand deposits mayrepresent very immature petroleumdeposits.
  129. Ozone levels are typically highest in
    the summer months
  130. Photovoltaic solar cells convert solar energy
    directly into electric energy
  131. an outstanding example of the scientific method
    plate tectonics
  132. What happened at the end of the last ice age?
    • -Pleistocene
    • -Sea level rose about 120 m
  133. Pluton
    Blob of hot material
  134. Kimberlite: Igneous Rocks and Magmatic deposits
    volcanic, named after Kimberly, a miner
  135. Where is the black smoker found? and where is it active?
    • - chimney found of precipitated on mid ocean ridge
    • -active on spreading centers
  136. age of the earth
    4.5 billion years
  137. age of oxygen atmosphere
    2-3 billion years
  138. age of last glacial max
    25,000 years
  139. age of end of last ice age
    10,000
  140. average age of fossil fuels
    300 million years
  141. global population
    7 billion
  142. US Population
    350 million
  143. average ocean depth
    5km
  144. US rate of petroleum consumption/person
    3 gallons
  145. US rate of rock andminerals, per person
    50-100 lbs
  146. C02 per person/day
    100 lbs
  147. Cleavage
    The tendency of a mineral to break preferentially along planes in certain directions in the crystal structure
  148. Foliation
    Parallel alignment of linear or platy minerals in a rock
  149. Plutonic
    an igneous rock crystallized well below the earth's surface; typically coarse-grained
  150. asthenosphere
    • - partialy molten
    • -weak zone within the upper mantle immediatedly below the lithosphere
  151. Body waves
    seismic waves that pass through the earth's interior, include P waves and S waves
  152. Basalt
    a volcanic rock rich in ferromagnesian minerals; low in silica
  153. Pyroclastics
    the hot fragments of rock emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption
  154. Stratovolcano
    a composite volcanoe cone built of interlayed lava flows and pyroclastic materials
  155. alluvial fan
    a wedge-shaped sediment deposit left where a tributary flows into a more slowly flowing stream, or where a mountain stream flows into a desert
  156. Delta
    a fan-shaped deposit of sediment formed at a stream's mouth
  157. gradient
    the steepness of a stream channel along its length
  158. Floodplain
    a flat region surrounding a stream channel
  159. Hydrograph
    a graph of stream stage or discharge against time
  160. load
    the total quantity of material transported by a stream
  161. Meanders
    the curves or bends in a stream
  162. Oxbow
    old meanders now cut off or abandoned by a stream
  163. Point bar
    a sedimentary feature built in a stream channel, on the inside of a meander or anywhere the water slows
  164. Cut bank
    steep stream bank being eroded by lateral migration of meanders
  165. Recurrence interval
    the average length of time between floods of a given size along a particular stream
  166. active margin
    a continental margin at which there is significant volcanic and earthquake activity, commonly a convergent plate margin
  167. estuary
    a body of water along a coastline that contains a mix of fresh and salt water
  168. wave-cut platform
    steplike surface cut in rock by wave action at sea or lake level
  169. wave refraction
    the deflection of waves as they approach shore
  170. ablation
    the loss of glacier ice by melting or evaporation
  171. abrasion
    erosion by wind-transported sediment or by the scaping of rock fragments fozen in glacial ice
  172. loess
    wind-deposited sediment composed of fine particles

    -0.01-0.06mm
  173. moraine
    landform made of till
  174. striations
    parallel grooves in a rock surface cut when a glacier containing rock debris flows over that rock
  175. aquitard
    rock of low permeability, through which water flows very slowly
  176. cone of depression
    a broadly conical depression of the water table or potentiometric surface caused by pumped groundwater withdrawal
  177. Hydraulic head
    potential energy of water above a given point
  178. karst
    • terrain characterized by abundant formation of underground solution cavities and sinkholes;
    • -commonly underlain by limestone
  179. porosity
    proportion of void space in rock, sediment, or soil
  180. A horizon
    • -top zone in soil
    • -mix of mineral and organic material
  181. B horizon
    • -Soil layer found below the soil's A and E horizon
    • -AKA zone of accumulation
  182. C horizon
    - soil layer found directly below the soil's B horizon; -consists of coarsely broken bedrock
  183. laterite
    • an extreme variety of pedalfer soil that is highly leached;
    • -common in tropical climates
  184. leaching
    the removal of elements or compounds by dissolution
  185. banded iron formation
    • a sedimentary rock consisting of alternating iron-rich and iron-poor bands,
    • -found in precambrian rocks
  186. evaporite
    a sedimentary mineral deposit formed when shallow or inland seas dry up
  187. where are manganese nodules found?
    on the sea floor
  188. pegmatite
    a very coarsely crystalline igneous rock
  189. placers
    the ores concentrated by stream or wave action on the basis of mineral densities and/or resistance to weathering
  190. spoil banks
    piles of waste rock and soil left behind by surface mining, especially strip mining
  191. tailings
    the piles of crushed waste rock created as a by-product of mineral processing
  192. geopressurized zones
    deep aquifers under usually high pressure, exceeding normal hydrostatic pressure
  193. The two most common elements in the earth's crust?
    silicon and oxygen
  194. the best known silicate
    quartz
  195. the most common volcanic rock
    basalt
  196. island arc
    line of volcanic islands
  197. Rank the importance of the following ways earthquakes cause damage: fault, displacement, fires, shaking, landslides.
    • 1. Fault/ ground rupture
    • 2. shaking
    • 3. Landslides
    • 4. Fire
  198. How many magnitude 5 earthquakesoccur per year in California?
    1000
  199. Which of the following was the largestknown volcanic eruption?
    – Mt. Mazama, Oregon
    – Mt. St. Helens, Washington
    – Krakatoa, Indonesia
    Krakatoa, Indonesia
  200. Volcancoes built up of layers of more than one kind of material
    stratovolcanoes or composite volcanoes
  201. Stream Hydrograph
    • Graphs of stream stage or flow over time
    • -Hydrographs show fluctuating water levels over differing time scales
  202. What is a “hundred year flood”?
    • the level of flood water expected to be equaled or exceeded every 100 years on average
    • -it means that there is a one in one-hundred (or 1%) chance of such a flood occurring in a given year.
  203. river deltas
    landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river
  204. What happened 10,000 years ago?
    when the last ice age ended
  205. the rate of sea level rise overthe last 10,000 years
    0-0.5mm
  206. Where does beach sand come from?
    • the sand on our beaches comes from the erosion of the land/rocks.
    • -beaches rely on sand transported from the mountains by the rivers and from eroding cliffs near the shoreline.
  207. Name some evaporite deposits
    • 1. Halite - rock salt
    • 2. Gypsum Calcium Sulfate
  208. Name some magmatic ore deposits
    • 1.Chromite Deposits,
    • 2.Nickel-Copper Deposits
    • 3.Platinum

  209. What fraction of earth’s total petroleumresources have been used already?
    about half

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