Chapter 23 - Metabolic Pathways

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  1. What is metabolism?
    The over process of acquiring and consuming free energy by living systems for their functioning
  2. What is anabolism?
    A set of biosynthetic reactions to obtain more complex biomolecules from structurally simple precursors.
  3. What is catabolism?
    Reactions of degradation of biological molecules to obtain necessary constituents to generate energy or to use for anabolism.
  4. If ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are simple metabolites _____ brings the molecules towards ADP + Pi, NAD+ + H+, and FAD+ 2H+.
  5. If ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are simple metabolites anabolism brings the molecules to __________.
    • ADP + Pi
    • NAD+ + H+
    • FAD+ 2H+.
  6. Acetyl-coenzyme A (Acetyl-CoA) is a two carbon acetyl residue attached to coenzyme A via ____ bond.
  7. What does the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation occur?
  8. Where does glycolysis occur?
  9. What is an autotroph?
    An organism that can synthesize all necessary cellular components from H2O, CO2, NH3, and H2S.
  10. What is an heterotroph?
    Organisms that oxidize such biomolecules such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins by consuming autotrophs.
  11. What is a chemolithotroph?
    A subcategory of autotroph that oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain the necessary energy.
  12. What is a photoautotroph?
    An organism that obtains energy via photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrates using light energy.
  13. What is an obligate aerobe?
    A organism that requires oxygen.
  14. What is an anaerobe?
    An organism that uses other agents that for oxydizing.
  15. What is an obligate anaerobe?
    An organism that cannot survive in the presence of O2.
  16. What is a facultative anaerobe?
    An organism that can grow both in the presence of oxygen or absence of. E.coli.
  17. (T/F) Animals are obligate aerobic heterotrophs
  18. What are the factors contributing to the energy-rich character of phosphoanhydride bonds in ATP?
    Resonance stabilization: Two strongly electron-withdrawing groups in a phosphoanhydride, they compete for the lone electron pairs of the bridging oxygen.

    Negatively charged groups of a phosphoanhydride: tend to repulse from each other, thus destabilizing the phosphoanhydride's structure.

    Phosphate and diphosphate are released upon hydrolysis with greater efficiency than the triphosphate group in ATP.
  19. NAD+ accepts ____ electrons while FAD+ accepts ____ electrons.
    • NAD+: One
    • FAD+: Two
  20. A _____ electrical potential different correlates to a spontaneous reaction.

    This is a different sign convention than G
  21. How many ATP are invested in the investment stage of glycolysis?
  22. How many NADH and ATP do you obtain during the payoff stage of glycolysis? What is the net?
    2 NADH and 4 ATP.

    A net of 2 NADH and 2 ATP.
  23. What does carbonic anhydrase catalyze?
    CO2 + H2O <-> HCO3- + H+
  24. What does protein kinase catalyze?
    Protein-Ser(Thr)-Oh + ATP --> Protein-Ser(Thr)-O-PO3- + ADP
  25. What does myosin catalyze?
    ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi
  26. What does Ca2+ ATPase catalyze?
    Ca2+ (in) + ATP + H2O -> Ca2+ (out) ADP + Pi
  27. What does pyruvate kinase catalyze?
    Pyruvate + ATP --> ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate
  28. What does KcsA channels catalyze?
    K+ (in) <--> K+ (out)
  29. What does heterotrimeric G protein catalyze?
    GTP + H2O -> GDP + Pi
  30. What is an integral protein?
    A membrane protein that is embedded in the lipid bilayer and can be separated from it only by treatment with agents that disrupt membranes.
  31. What is peripheral protein?
    A protein that is weakly associated with the surface of a biological membrane.
  32. What is a lipid-linked protein?
    A protein that is anchored to a biological membrane via a covalently attached lipid such as a farnesyl, geranylgeranyl, myristoyl, palmitoyl, or phycosylphosphatidylinositol group.
  33. What is intrasteric regulation?
  34. What is the membrane potential?
    The electrical potential difference across a membrane. Negative on the inside.
  35. What is an action potential?
  36. What is receptor desensitization?
    Receptor desensitization is a phenomenon of receptor’s reduced response to a long term stimuli
  37. What is a lipid raft?
    A semicrystalline region of a cell membrane containing tightly packed glycosphingolipids and cholesterol
  38. What is the fluidic mosaic model?
  39. What is a signaling peptide?
  40. What is the Bohr effect?
    The Bohr effect deals with the presence of protons and the transition from T -> R configurations of hemoglobin. It also deals with the affinity of T state's affinity towards CO2.

    As the pH of the solution increases, the binding affinity of O2 is increased and vise versa for CO2.
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Chapter 23 - Metabolic Pathways

Chapter 23 - Metabolic Pathways
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