Normal Microflora

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  1. normal microflora of skin
    • most are gram positive because tend to be more resistant to salt and dryness
    • both transient and resident
  2. factors impacting microflora of skin
    • weather - temperature and moisture
    • age
    • personal hygiene
  3. *What causes acne and how do you treat it?
    • propionbacterium acnes
    • degrades the triglycerides in the oil made by sebaceous glands, turning them into fatty acids that promote inflammation of the gland
    • treat with antibiotics
  4. environment of microflora of mouth
    • heterogeneous
    • complex
  5. factors impacting microflora of mouth
    • age
    • brushing
    • food intake - sucrose
  6. factors impacting microflora of upper respiratory tract
    • weather
    • structure
    • health
  7. environment of microflora of upper respiratory tract
    • walls lined with ciliated epithelium
    • mucous secretions
  8. *normal flora of gastrointestinal tract
    • contribute biochemically and metabolically
    • acidic in stomach - few bacteria
    • anaerobic in colon - a lot of bacteria
  9. *retention time is key for predominant members of gut
    • high rate of turnover of intestinal epithelium
    • high rate of propulsion of food and water through gut by peralstalsis
    • symbionts inhabit the polysaccharide-rich mucus gel layer
  10. proposed mechanism for microbial retention in gut
    • outer membrane polysaccharide binding proteins facilitate attachment of Bacteroides to mucus glycans
    • Bacteroides can signal to host to produce fucosylated glycans which it can then specifically digest
  11. *Bacteroides thetaiotamicron genome
    • the most prominent intestinal symbiont
    • coverts complex carbohydrates we eat into products the body can absorb
    • large repertoire of genes involved in acquiring and processing dietary polysaccharides
    • responds to local environment through sigma factors and novel hybrid 2-component systems - on a single polypeptide, thought to help reduce signal amplification or cross-talk, get specificity
  12. prebiotic approach
    eat foods that select for certain bacteria
  13. probiotic approach
    introduce live microorganisms
  14. *probiotics
    *microbes that when ingested aim to restore balance to intestinal flora and promote health

    • must be safe to eat
    • remain alive for the shelf life of the product
    • be present in high enough quantity to provide benefits that go beyond basic nutrition
    • thought that short chain fatty acids produced via fermentation facilitate intestinal transit time promoting regularity
Card Set:
Normal Microflora
2011-12-09 08:23:01
PMB 112 midterm3

general microbiology midterm 3
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