HDE100a final

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HDE100a final
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HDE100a final
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  1. rate of growth during 2nd year
    -accelerated myelination in cerebral cortex-myelinations of connection within cerebral cortex-maturation of brain areas roughly equal except for PFC-rate of growth is slower than during the first year height 29-38 inches weight 20-33 lbs
  2. piaget's sensorimotor substage 6
    representation (18-24 months)babies base actions on internal mental symbols of experiencesolve problem systematically vs. trial and errorengage in symbolic play and fantasy playenables deferred imitationpass A-not-B testable to antipate trajectory of moving object that has disappeared behind a barrier
  3. Major brain area undergoing synaptogenesis during 2 year.
    • frontal lobe
    • perfeceptual, locomotor, manual dexterity, control of elimination
    • new modes of thought-symbolic, problem solving, pretend play, pictures and models

    • prefrontal cortex
    • social behavior: less distress at seperation, sense of self, accept adult standards, secondary emotions
    • behavioral: coordinated walking, manual dexterity (coordination of fine motor skills), control bladder and bowel, complex and planned problem solving, symbolic representaion, symbolic play, expression of basic words and phrases, conceptual and complex categories.
  4. Piaget's sensorimotor substage 5
    • tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
    • ability to vary actions of substage 4 (engage in behaviors toward achieving a goal) systematical and flexibly
    • experiments in order to see: children are trying to find out about nature of objects and events. still using trial and error.
    • infants still can't reason systematically about actions and anticipate the consequences
    • not confused about switching when they are watching, but if distracted they will look in the original place.
  5. What is the rouge test and at what age does a child passes it?
    rouge test: self-recognition test that identifies a child's ability to recognize a reflection in a mirror as his or her own. Rouge makeup is put on the child's face and then the child is place in front of the mirror. Child will either be able to idenitify the reflection as self or another being. A child can pass the test at 18 months, showing self-recognition.
  6. What are secondary emotions? when do they emerge?
    • 18-24 months
    • ability to think about themselves in relation to to other people (in terms of social standard, rule, desired goal)
    • ex) embarassment, pride, shame, guilt, envy
  7. Jerome Bruner modes of representation
    • 1. enactive mode
    • 2. iconic mode
    • 3. symbolic mode
  8. enactive mode
    • procedural memories, representing as motor act
    • knowing how to do something
    • motor representation, focus is on process
    • action based
    • ex) crawling, how to use a spoon
  9. iconic mode
    • knowledge is characterized by sensory
    • sensory representation
    • ex) visual rep, picture
    • auditory rep, song
    • tactile rep, cotton
  10. symbolic mode
    • represent things as symbols and able to remember it out of context
    • symbolic representation
    • ex) the symbol 4 represent four items
  11. why is the symbolic mode important for explicit memory call
  12. What are the components of language?
    • phonology
    • semantics
    • pragmatics
    • grammar
  13. phonology
    • The component of language concerned with the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds
    • ex) phonemes such as ba and pa
  14. Semantics
    • The component of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combination.
    • ex) vocabulary and lexicon
  15. Pragmatics
    • The component of language concerned with the rules for engagina in effective and appropriate communication with others
    • ex. gesture, tone of voice, context clarify meaning
  16. Grammar
    • The component of language is concerned with rules which governs language.
    • ex. syntax, arrangement of words
    • morphology, grammatical markers
  17. What areas in the brain are associated with language?
    • Broca's Area: language production
    • Wernicke's Area: language comprehension
  18. Broca's Area
    • motor control and language production
    • damage to this area leads to speech absent and speech production
    • located in the left hemisphere on the left frontal lobe
  19. Wernicke's Area
    • central to processing sounds and comprehension
    • damage to this area leads to inability to comprehend language
    • located on the left hemisphere on the upper portion of the temporal lobe.
  20. Holophase
    • used by infants up to the age of 2 years
    • a single word that is used to express a complete, meaning thought.
    • another word is utterance
    • ex. thanks. me take
  21. Babbling
    • 5-7 months
    • babbling starts to include sounds (phenomes) of their native language.
    • repetition of consonants and vowels in alternating sequences la-la-la
  22. Jargoning
    • chattering nonsense-ically with sounds of native language.
    • as if they are talking
    • patterns of speech that sounds like native language.
  23. Language development. ages and events
    • 2-3 months: cooing
    • 6: babbling: repetition of consonants and vowels in alternative sequences
    • 7: babbling starts to include sounds of their native language
    • 10: jargoning, chattering of speech that sounds like native language
    • 8-12: infant says first word
    • 18: have a 50 word spoken (expressive) vocabulary

    by age 6 they have 8000-14000 words in their vocabulary
  24. types of words in toddlers vocabulary
    • repeated monosyllable such as bye bye
    • single syllable words such as go or no
    • end with the long e sound such as birdie doggie
    • begin with the consonants such as s b d t m or n
    • refer to people, objects, events familiar to the child
  25. Phonological Development
    young children learn to segment sequences of speech into meaning units of language and master the pronunciation and rules of their native sound system
  26. Semantic Development
    increasing understanding of the meaning of words and strings of words. with the help of adults, children learn to pair words to their referents, overcoming problmes of overextension and underextension
  27. Grammar Development
    Evident of two-words utterances, utterances become increasingly long and complex, with more units of meaning, or morphemes, including grammatical morphemes
  28. Pragmatic Development
    enables children to understand and employ social and cultural conventions of language use, to use communications such as conversational acts to achieve goals, and to use context to interpret communications
  29. Protoimperative gestures
    • early conversational acts whose purpose is to get another person to do something
    • ex. hold up a cup and say more to get a refill of juice
  30. Protodeclarative Gestures
    • acts with purpose to establish joint attention and sustain a dialogue
    • ex. pointing
  31. what are the problems of verbal referencing- how do children figure out what objects goes with a given word?
    The child has to identify a word's referent by establishing joint attention with the speaker and to understand that the object of joint attention is what the speaker is talking about. Referential initiation accounts for children's inital slow rate of vocabulary development until they reach a growth spurt during toddlehood.
  32. Morphemes
    • the smallest unit of measuring in the words of a language
    • horse, horses
    • membee of equine family = (s)-more than one
  33. Overextension
    a term for the error of applying verbals labels to broadly. children use a word to refer to a broader group of objects than the word usually refers.
  34. Underextension
    • term used for applying verbal labels in a narrower way than adults do
    • label only a plastic colored bottle that is theirs as bottle but not other kinds of bottles
    • label cats to only their family cats
  35. Language Acquisition Device (Chomsky)
    • The child is hard wired to recognize the abstract grammatical rules of language that the child is expose to
    • described as an innate language processing ability.
  36. Theories and explanations of Language AcquisitionLearning-Theory Explanation (B.F. Skinner)
    • Major causal factor- environment (nurture), and time mechanisms
    • Conditioning- classical (sum of all experiences)-the reflex to a stimulus & operant (parental enthusiasm over close approximations to correct sound
    • of the word)
    • Imitation- abstract modeling for grammar
    • Major phenomenon explained- word meaning
  37. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition
    Nativist Explanation
    • major causal factor: heredity (nature): Innate ability(Chomsky)
    • Mechanism:Triggering: Via language acquisition device programmed to recognize the deep structures that underlie any particular language that the child
    • may hear
    • Major Phenomenon explained: Grammar
  38. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition
    Interactionist Explanation
    • Major Causal Factor:
    • cognitive hypothesis: derived from Piaget’s constructivism, Interaction of social and biological factors
    • cultural-context approach: based on Burner’s formats- peekaboo and other routines, Cultural mediation of social/ biological interaction

    • -Mechanims:
    • Cognitive Hypothesis: assimilation-accommodation Cultural-Context approach: cultural scripts- Language Acquisition Support System

    (LASS)-Major Phenomenon Explained: Language-Thought Relationships
  39. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition
    Biological Explanation:
    According to Chomsky the fact that children acquire language quickly and effortlessly and are able to create sentences that they have never heard before makes it impossible that language could be due to a learning mechanism. Chomsky claims that language is innate and that it develops through a universal process of maturation. Children learn language as a result of the mechanism (LAD)
  40. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition Brunner:
    • Earliest social structures for language development involve formats which are recurrent socially patterned activities in which adult and child do things together.Language acquisition support system: parental
    • behavoirs and formatted events within which children acquire language. It is the environmental complement to the innate, biological constituted
    • LAD.
  41. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition Cognitive Approaches:
    proposes that the child’s emerging language abilities follow from the child’s increased ability to think and process information. Changes arise as a consequence of the kind of cognitive changes described by piaget.
  42. Theories and explanations of Language Acquisition Social and Cultural Explanations p 262:
    • While some researchers acknowledge that innate features of human brain play a role in the acquisition of language, they also stress that language is a social process. Children acquire language in a process of learning language and socioculture environment enters into partnership with the
    • child in acquisition of language.
  43. essential ingredients for language acquisition
    Biological-children are able to acquire language on the basis of limited input because our brains are hardwired to learn a language that follows certain universal rules

    Social & cultural-emphasize the role of the sociocultural environment, through, for example, formats (routine, patterned activities that adult and children do together) and through interactions generally

    Cognitive- focus on the way emerging language abilities follow from children’s increased ability to think and process information.For example, as egocentrism wanes, collective monologues give way to true dialogue
  44. what is fast mapping?
    • fast mapping: the way in which children quickly form an idea of meaning of an unfamiliar world they hear in a family and highly structured social interation.
    • simplifying assumptions used to narrow guesses about what words mean
  45. What are the principles of fast mapping?
    • whole object principle
    • mutual exclusivity
    • categorizing
  46. Whole Object Principle
    • one of fast mapping principles
    • assume that the word refers to the object as a whole rather than a part of the object
    • ex. bunny refers to the whole animal, not just the ears or the feet
  47. Mutual Exlusivity Principle
    • one of fast mapping principle
    • assume that there is one word for every object and a new word does not apply to an object that alreay has a name
  48. Categorizing Principle
    • one of fast mapping principle
    • assume that a word assigned to a new objec can be applied to similar objects of the same category
  49. What is the relationship between language an thought? what are the hypotheses?
    • Wharf hypothesis: language precedes thought
    • Piagetian hypothese: thought first then language
    • Vygotsky: thought and language develop separetly and gradually come together
  50. progress of language development. typical behavior and age
    • birth: phoneme perception, crying, distinguish between language and non-language
    • 3 months: cooing
    • 6 months: babling; lose discrimination between non-native phonemes
    • 9 months: first words; holophrases
    • 12 months: use of words to attract's adult's attention
    • 18 months: vocabulary spurt; two word utterences
    • 24 months: responsive to indirect request, (is that door shut)
    • 30 months: creat indirect request, take listener into account
    • Early: increase grammatical complexity (2-4: overgenerarlize)
    • middle: understand passive forms; aquire written
    • adolescence: acquire specialized language functions
  51. What is the number of words in 6 year old vocabulary?
    by age 6 they have 8000-14000 words in their vocabulary
  52. language development at the age between 2-4
    explosive growth ability to comprehend and use langauge
  53. Biological shift to early childhood
    • synaptogenesis underway in prefrontral cortex
    • myelination of connections occur among brain areas
    • maturation of brain areas except PFC
  54. social shift to early childhood
    • decline of distress at separation
    • distinctive sense of self
    • acceptance of adult standards
    • emergence of secondary emotions
  55. Behavioral Shifft to early childhood
    • walking becomes well coordinated
    • manual dexterity enables infant to pick up and manipulate small objects
    • close to full control bladder and bowel
    • more complex and planned problem solving
    • symbolic play
    • expression of basic words and phrases
    • conceptual and complex categories
  56. Physiological growth and brain maturation during Early Childhood
    • age 2: 50% adult weight
    • age 6: 90% adult weight
    • most of the increase in brain weight results from increasing myelination
    • on going synaptogenesis underlies most of the changes in ability
    • language areas are rapidly being runed (2-4 Years)
    • prefrontal cortex finishes exuberant synapse formation (2yrs) and the pruning bacl of unused synapses begins.
  57. Gross motor Development
    • requires use of large muscles in the arms and legs
    • 2yrs old -walk well, runs awkwardly, goes up and down stairs 2 feet at a time, kicks ball
    • 3 yrs old - walks up stairs one foot at a time, marches
    • 4 yrs old - skips, walk up and down stairs one foot per step. standing broad jump throws overhand.
    • 5-6 yrs old - hops and skips, skates, rides scooter. swing independently, uses slides and climbing equipment
  58. Fine Motor Development
    • ability to coordinate smale muscle groups in hands and fingers
    • 2 yrs old - use spoon and fork, turns page of a book, imitates circular stroke, builds tower of 6 cubes high
    • 3 yrs old - feeds self well, put shoes and socks on, unbutton and button, build tower of 10 cubes
    • 4 yrs old - cut with scissors, washes and dires face, draws a person, dresses self
    • 5-6 yrs old - dresses without help, print simple letters, tie shoes.
  59. Finger differentiation
    • ability to touch each finger on a hand with the thumb of that hand.
    • develops 4-6 age
    • -4 years old palmer grasp: grash with the palm of hand and move the whole arm
    • 4-5 years: tripod grasp-use fingers with wrist, better control, holding a pencil
  60. What are the limitations of preoperational thinking?
    • 1. egocentrism
    • 2. centration
    • 3. confusing appearance and reality
    • 4. precausal reasoning
  61. Egocentrism
    • tendency to consider the word entirely in terms of one's own point of view
    • ex. lack of spatial perspective taking, almost always chooses the view of the side of the mountain that they see
    • egocentric speech: tendency to engage in collective monologues
    • when giving intstructions to people who cannot see what is going on, speaker gave too little information, listener asked too few questions
  62. Centration
    • tendency to focus exclusively on one aspect of something
    • uni-dimensional thought
  63. Confusing Appearance and Reality
    • seeing is believing
    • become frightened when someone puts a maks on, believing that a nice cat with a scary dog mask on is now a mean scary dog
    • ability to distinguish appearance from reality increases over age
  64. Precausal Reasoning
    • instead of reasoning from general premises to particular cases (deductive reasoning) or from specific cases to more general premise (inductive logic), preschoolers tend to think transductively (from one particular to another)
    • ex. if it snows, it must be winter. if it doesn't, it must not be winter
  65. Problem of uneven performance-Horizontal decalage
    • variations in performance from one version of a problem to another
    • ex. spatial perspective: can take another's spatial perspective when task involves familiar, easily differentiated objects
    • understanind other minds: when a child's role changed in false-belief tast from that of the decieved to that of the deciever, even 3 years old exhibit some understanding of other people's thought processes
  66. Information processing ideas
    • sensory register: start point of any problem solving process. stores incoming infor for a fraction of a second
    • Short term working memory: retained for a few seconds, where active thinkg takes place
    • Long term storage: memories of past experiences
    • Control Processes: determine how information held in working memory is applied to a problem at hand - attention, rehearsal, decision-making

    Neo-Piagetia Theories: retain the idea that acquisitio of knowledge passes through stages, but believe that it occurs at different rate in different domains
  67. Short-term memory span
    • the number of randomly presented items of information that can be repeated immediately after they are presented. increases slowly during childhood
    • age 4 2 or 3 words
    • age 5 3-4 words
    • age 6 4-5 words
    • adult 7 +/-2 words
  68. Long-term memory
    • they are able to talk about things and can declare what they know
    • semantic: conscious recollection of factual knowledge
    • episodic: memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated
  69. Scripts
    event schemas that specify who participates in an event, what social roles they play, what objects they are to use during the event and the sequence of actions that make up the event
  70. Skeletal principles
    is a domain-specific principle that uses a congitive process that gives on an initial direction but needs subsequent experience to reach its full potential (eg LAD for language)
  71. Mental Modules
    innate mental faculties that receieve inputs from particular classes of objects and produce coressponding information about the world
  72. Privileged of Naiive Domains: Naiive Biology
    • a birth they can distinguish between biological movement as opposed to mechanical movement
    • distinguised between self-initiated and external-initiated movements
    • 3-4 years old: can make correct generalizations concerning animate and inanimate objects
  73. Privileged of Naiive domains: Naive Physics
    • how the world works
    • basic knowledge
  74. Privileged of Naiive domains: Mathematics
    in middle infancy they start to develop how many or greater than and some say they have a naive sense of adding and taking away or a pile that is two times as big
  75. Privileged of Naiive domains: Psychology
    • the idea of theory of mind comes into play
    • being about to understand other people's mind
    • having a notion about what other people's mind are about
    • by the end of the first year, they understand intuitively that other's actions are caused by their goals and intentions
  76. Explanations of the development of child during early childhood
    • by the end of the first year children posses at least an intuitive understanding that other people's actions are caused by their goals and intentions
    • 18-24 months: children engage in pretend play, indicating onset of symbolic capacity needed to understand mental states of others
    • 3 years: children generally distinguish mental and physical states, perceptions and desires
    • 4-5 years: able to think about the relation between their own beliefs and those of others; starting to develop theory of mind; their idea of other peoples minds
  77. Theory Theory
    Young children develop primitive theories about how the world works, that the way our brain works, including young children, that we tend to develop theories about how things work, and in doing so the children are able to put together these naive domains.
  78. Types of play
    • Sensory exploration play
    • functional play
    • constructive play
    • pretend play
    • fantasy play
    • Group Play
  79. Sensory Exploration Play
    Infant uses sense to explore objects in undifferentiated way with eyes or repetitive hand movements (begins: early infancy); in middle infancy sensory exploration becomes systematized, combined objects: putting objects into and taking them out of another object-continues throughout childhood
  80. Functional Play
    • Begins at the end of middle infancy (3-7 months)
    • the manipulation of objects in a functional way
    • ex. infants and toddlers; grasping and pulling a mobile (continues through early childhood)
  81. Constructive Play
    • Manipulation of objects or materials to make something, begins at the end of middle infancy
    • the child is sorting and building with various objects; continues through late infancy
    • the materials are used in simple and then more complex ways, this continues through early childhood
  82. Pretend Play
    begins at late infancy, the child creates situations where objects take on new purpose (like chairs becomes a train) it extends into early childhood
  83. Fantasy Play
    • begines early childhood
    • this is when the child creates stories and act them out, it continues into early childhood
    • gets more complex (socio-dramatic play-includes more than one in acting out roles and scipts, kids can learn from one another in socio-dramatic play)
  84. Group play
    • games with rules
    • ex. hide and seek, tag, board games, soccer begins end of early childhood (5 or 6)
  85. Intergenerationall transmission, % of individuals who fit theory
    people who were abused as kids are likely to abuse their own kids 30% of individuals abused are likely abuse
  86. Numbers, types of number
    • Cardinality: absolute number size
    • Ordinality: relational properties
    • subtize: rapid perceptual process used to determine number of objects at one glance. towards end of infancy, infancy can discriminate 1, 2, and 3
    • Principles of counting
  87. Two sides of social development
    • 1. socialization
    • 2. Personality Development
  88. Socialization
    • acquire standards, values, and knowledge of society
    • intergrated into the larger social community
  89. Personality Development
    • Develop unique patterns of feelings, thinking and behaving
    • differentiated as distinctive individuals
    • first aspect of personality development is temperament
  90. What is identification? Why is it important for socialization?
    • identification: psychological process in which children try to look, act, feel and be like signicifant people in their social environment
    • sex/gender role identity
    • personal identity

    identification is important because it is essential to the process of socialization. depending on the gender, the child while be socialize into specific roles.
  91. Gender identity, differences in fantasy play
    • girls are more domestic; are more likely to retreat from tug of war and simply observe. seek to avoid collisions
    • boys focus on themes and conflict; are more active and engage in more rough and tumble play
    • there differences in play styles tend to result in self-segregation (confirmed across cultures)
  92. Gender Identity
    Social-learning view (Bandura)
    • identification through observation and imitation
    • adults not only provide models for children to imitate; but also reward gender appropriate behavior and punish cross-gender behavior

    Differential Reinforcement: the process by whcih girls and boys are differently rewarded for engageing in gender-approprate behavior

    Parental Encouragement: reason why boy and girl assume traditional masculine and feminine roles
  93. Gender Identity: Cognitive View (Kohlberg)
    idenity formation as conceptual development, I am a boy therefore i want to do boys things, the opportunity to do boy things and to gain approval is rewarding

    • Basic sex role identity: by 3 years old, children can label themselves as boy or girl
    • Sex role stability: during early childhood, they begin to understand that sex roles are stable over time
    • Sex-role constancy: completed when they understand that their sex remains the same no matter what the situation
  94. Personal Identity
    • the predictable pattern in how children describe themselves
    • early childhood: focus on specific concrete characteristics, then to be unrealistically positive
    • later: combine these into generalized trains (being smart of good athlete)
  95. Double sided phonomena of "I" and "me"
    • "i": subjective, running consciousness, looking from inside out
    • "me": objective, looking from outside in
  96. Autobiographical Memories and parents role in them
    • personal narrative that helps children acquire an enduring sense of themselves.
    • created in situations in which adults help children recall and interpret events in which they participated.
  97. Types of morality
    • heteronomous morality
    • autonomous morality
  98. Heteronomous Morality
    • depends on how much external damage one does
    • young children's tendency to define morality in terms of object consequences and externally imposed controls
  99. Autonomous Morality
    • learn that rules can be changed vial poltical system
    • right and wrong depending if its deliberate or not, autonomous thinking
  100. The three levels of Morality
    • moral rules
    • social convention
    • personal rules
  101. Moral Rules
    • most general, fairness and rights, prosocial behaviors, spans across socieites
    • ex. killing is bad
  102. Social Convention
    • social coordination, school rules, attire, sex rules
    • not every society has the same rules
  103. Personal rules
    • personal preference
    • include hygiene, make noises while eating, saying thank you
  104. Internalization; child, caregiver interaction conscience, role in emotional development
    • process by which external culturally organized experiences become transformed intro interl psychological processes that in turn organize how people behave.
    • gives the capacity for shame and guilt

    • Emotions in transition (infancy to early childhood)
    • emergence of secondary emotions=the self conscious social emotions
    • children must have both the ability and the desire to behave in socially acceptable ways
  105. Self Control
    • ability to inhibit intial impulses
    • ex. stop and think before acting, balacen personal desires and internalized social standards
    • inhibitions of movement, emotions, choice
  106. Self-regulation
    • learning to control ones thoughts, emotions and behaviors
    • infants and young children reuire a great deal of assistance with this
    • generates and maintains representation that directs behaviors; monitors own progress; modifies problem strategies

    • babies: suck on their finger or pacifiers, rock themselves
    • ages 2-6 avoid or reduce emotionally charged information by closing eyes; use active engagement (actively involved in thinking of strategies
  107. Delay of Gratification
    • the ability for the child to wait for the reward in front of them but wait for the next reward which is even better
    • the ability for self-control, to hold off of their desire to get a better one later
    • ex. the marshmallow task
  108. Berkowitz model of aggression
    • hostile aggression: intent to harm
    • instrumental aggression: intent to get an object and harm someone accidently

    girls: relational aggression-they will engage in emotional attacking such as verbal confrontation (indirect)

    boys are more physical
  109. Milestones in social and emotional development
    6-7months: babies can read their mothers' faces as a guide to how they should feel

    2 yrs: know that other people feel bad when you hit them and that giving them something nice makes them feel good.

    • 3 yrs: usually interpret other children's emtions correctly
    • usually separate easily from parents
    • spontaneously expresses affection for family members and playmates
    • beginning to learn emotional display rules which stipulate when, where and how it is culturally appropriate to express emotion

    • 4 years
    • cooperation with other children more evident
    • increasingly interested in new experiences
    • increasingly inventive in fantasy play
    • has trouble distinguishing reality and fantasy

    • 5 years
    • want to be like friens and please them
    • more likely to agree to rules, but can demanding
    • better able to distinguish between fantasy and reality
    • more aware of differences between girls and boys: beginning of cootie effect
  110. Causes of aggression
    • 1. agression in rewarded:
    • victim gave in or retreated resulting in victory
    • adults provided positive reinforcement
    • 2. children imiate the behavior of older role model
    • physical punishments, particularly with anger, may inadvertently teach children to behave aggressively
    • 3. watching adults modeling aggressive act increases aggression. Makes little difference whether the adult models are live or filmed (imitation of adult behavior)
  111. Individuals difference with aggression
    • Research findings Trends: Children at age 3 who- Behave defiantly and disobediently with adults- Are aggressive toward their peers -
    • Are impulsive and hyperactive

    • Are likely to still have these problems during middle childhood and adolescenceResearch findings Genetics: Aggressive behavior is associated with-
    • Increased levels of the hormone testosterone- Decreased levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin

    • Research findings Environment: Poverty associated with increased aggression (parents are likely to use
    • harsh and inconsistent discipline, perhaps due to increased stress)
    • Research findings: Cognition: Aggressive children more often misinterpret social
    • interactions in negative ways that fosters aggressive responses
  112. Controlling aggression, ways to do this and which are more successful
  113. Understanding others' emotions, development of, factors underlying
    • 6-7 months: babes can “read” their mother’s faces as a guide to how they should feel
    • 2 years old: know that other people feel bad when you hit them and the giving them something nice makes them feel good
    • 3 years old: usually interpret other children’s emotions correctly
    • 5-6 years old: agreed with adult assessment of others emotional states and of the events likely to have caused them more than 80% of the time

    As children’s understanding of social events increases, so does their ability to predict another child’s feelings
  114. Prosocial Behavior
    • voluntary action intended to benefit others. includes sharing, helping, caregiving, showing compassion, altruismDeveloping Prosocial Behavior - Strategies:Reward:
    • not very effective (4-year-olds who were most inclined to act
    • prosocially were those who received no recognition for their prosocial
    • acts)Explicit modeling: increased prosocial behavior as long as 2 weeks laterInduction
    • (adults gave explanations of what needs to be done and why):
    • 12-year-olds displayed higher levels of empathy and prosocial behavior
  115. Empathy
    the sharing of another person’s emotions and feelings.empathy often turns into: Sympathy: higher level learned skilled, sorrow focused on the other personPersonal Distress: the kid feels distressed tooFour stages:Neonates: babies as young as 2 days become stressed and cry at the sounds of another infant’s criesSecond year: egocentric empathy - seek to comfort others, although some of their attempt to help may be inappropriateAges 3-5: Empathize with people they have never metAges 6-9:interest in social/political issues (poverty, oppression, illness)
  116. Stages of Pro-social Behavior
    • 6-7 months: Babies can “read” their mothers’ faces as a guide to how they should feel.2 years old: Know that other people feel bad when you hit them and that giving them something nice makes them feel good.3 years old: Usually interpret other children’s emotions correctly. 5-6 years old: Agreed with adult assessment of others emotional states and of the events likely to have caused them more than 80% of the time STAGES ( from the book)1. Global Empathy: early cries akin to reflex2. Egocentric Empathy: deveop sense of self and response to others distress. concern to comfort otehrs3. empathy in early childhood: able to be more sensitive to others feelings4.
    • Empathy in middle childhood: understand that emotional responses may be
    • tied to an individuals unique history of past experiences
  117. media context
  118. Contexts, Risk and Resilience
  119. Prominent Shifts + period
    • Shift point - developmental period
    • Conception - Prenatal period
    • Birth - early infancy
    • 2.5-3 months - middle infancy
    • 7-9 months - late infancy
    • 24-30 months - early childhood
    • 5-7 years middle childhood
    • 11-12 years adolescence
    • 19-21 years adulthood

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