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What are the key features of fungi?
- - bodies consist of slender threads
- - obtain their nutrients from other organisms
- - propagate by spores
- - reproduce both sexually and asexually
- - multicellular
- - Cells are surrounded by cell walls composed of chitin, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide
The body of almost all fungi is ________.
_______ is an interwoven mass of one-cell-thick, threadlike filaments called hyphae.
In fungi, a threadlike structure that consists of elongated cells.
__________ are haploid reproductive cells capable of developing into an adult fungus.
-Usually produced in large numbers.
-Dispersed by animals or air currents.
Occurs when environmental contitions are stable, a haploid mycelium produces asexual spores by mitosis.
Occurs when environmental conditions change,two haploid hyphae of different mating types fuse,- A diploid zygote forms after two haploid nuclei fuse- Haploid sexual spores form after the zygote undergoies meiosis- Sexual spores from new mycelia genetically different from the original hyphae.
What are the four major groups of Fungi?
- - Chytridiomycota
- - Zygomycota
- - Basidiomycota
- - Ascomycota
Unlike most types of fungi, _____ live in water. They also have swimming spores that propel itself through water by means of a single flagellum located on one end of the spore.
__________can reproduce by forming diploid spores.
-Sporangia form haploid spores during asexual reproduction.
-Diploid zygospores form after sexual reproduction.
-Soft fruit rot and black bread mold caused by species in the Rhizopus genus.
(Zygomycetes) Zygote fungi
_________ form spores in a saclike case.
-Specialized hyphae form asexual spores.
-Spore containing saclike cases called asci form after sexual reproduction.
Sac fungi or Ascomycetes
_______ produce Club-Shaped Reproductive Structures.
-Club-shaped diploid basidia form after sexual reproduction.
-Basidia produce haploid basidiospores by meiosis. -Basidia and basidiospores form in fruiting bodies like mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi.
-Fairy rings develop as hyphae grow outwards in a circular pattern from a basidiospore that germinated.
Club Fungi or Basidiomycetes
Symbiotic relationships with Mycorrhizae...
- - Partnerships between fungi and plant roots
- - Fungus increases the availability of minerals, organic nutrients, and water for the plant
- - Plant produces sugars absorbed by the fungus.
- - Plants with mycorrhizae grow better than plants without
How does fungi affect humans?
- - Fungi attack plants that are important to people.
- - Fungi cause human diseases
- - Fungi can produce toxins
- - Many antibiotics are derived from fungi
- - Fungi make important contributions to gastronomy
- - Fungi plays a crucial ecological role
Fungi attacks what plants that are important to people?
- *Corn- by corn smut (though in Mexico, corn smut is a delicacy and known as the Mexican truffle)
- * Wheat and apple rusts
- - Trees damaged by fungi
- *American elms
- - Wood rot and textile damage
- - Fungi that benefit agriculture - fungal pathogens used to control insect pests
Fungi can cause what human diseases?
- - Skin diseases - athlete's foot, ringworm
- - Vaginal yeast infections
- - Internal diseases - valley fever, histoplasmosis
Fungi can produce what kinds of toxins?
- - Aflatoxins- produced by molds in the genus Aspergillus
- - Ergot- fungal toxin associated with infected rye
What atibiotics are derived from fungi?
- - Penicillin- was the first antibiotic discovered.
- - Cyclosporin - an immunosuppressive drug imortant for transplaant patients.
Fungi make important contributions to Gastronomy.....
- - Direct - morels, truffles, mushrooms.
- - Indirect - cheeses flavored by molds
- - Yeasts' contributions
- *Wine and beer are made using yeasts' alcoholic fermentation
- *Yeasts make bread rise CO2 produced during alcoholic fermentation
Fungi play a crucial ecological role....
- - Digestive activities release nutrients from dead plant and animal bodies.
- - Soil enriched and nutrients used by plants.
- - Truffles (rare ascomycetes)
- *Astronomical prices
- *How they're found
- - The shotgun approach to spore dispersal
- - Nematode entrapment
- Arthrobotrys, the nematode (roundworm) strangler, traps its prey in a nooselike modified hypha that swells when the inside of the loop is contacted.