Volume 1 Chapter 10 Pt. 2

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amerelman
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Volume 1 Chapter 10 Pt. 2
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2010-03-26 14:17:50
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Volume 1 Chapter 10 Pt 2
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Volume 1 Chapter 10 Pt. 2
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  1. Intravenous Access
    Surgical puncture of a vein to deliver medication or withdraw blood. AKA Cannulation
  2. Indications for Venous Access
    • -Fluid/Blood replacement
    • -Drug Administration
    • -Obtaining venous blood specimens for lab analysis
  3. Peripheral Venous Access
    Surgical puncture of a vein in the arm, leg or neck.
  4. Central Venous Access
    Surgical puncture of the internal jugular, subclavian or femoral vein
  5. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC)
    Line threaded into the central circulation via a peripheral site
  6. Intravenous Fluid
    Chemically prepared solution tailored to the body's specific needs
  7. Colloid
    Intravenous solutions containing large proteins that cannot pass through capillary membranes
  8. Crystalloid
    Intravenous soultions that contain electrolytes but lack the larger proteins in colloids
  9. Isotonic
    State in which solutions on opposite sides of a semipermiable membrane are in equal concentration
  10. Hypertonic
    State in which a solution has a higher solute concentration on one side of a semipermiable membrane that on the other side.
  11. Hypotonic
    State in which a solution has lower solute concentration on one side of a semipermiable membrane than the other
  12. Crystalloid Classes
    • -Isotonic
    • -Hypertonic
    • -Hypotonic
  13. Common IV Fluids
    Lactated Ringers: Isotonic electrolyte solution with Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Calcium Chloride, Sodium Lactate in water.

    Normal Saline: Isotonice electrolyte solution with .9 percent Sodium Chloride in water

    5% Dextrose (D5W): Hypotonic glucose solution used to keep vein open and supply glucose
  14. IV Fluid Packaging
    • -Label with fluid type and expiration date
    • -Medication Administration Port
    • -Administration Set Port
  15. Administration Tubing
    Flexible, clear plastic tubing that connects the solution bag to the IV cannula
  16. Cannula
    Hollow needle used to puncture the vein
  17. Microdrip Administration Tubing
    Administration tubing that delivers a relatively small amount of fluid
  18. Macrodrip Administration Tubing
    Administration tubing that delivers a relatively large amount of fluid
  19. Spike
    Sharp-pointed device inserted into the IV soultion bag's administration set port
  20. Drip Chamber
    Clear plastic chamber that allows visualization of the drip rate
  21. Drip Rate
    Pace at which the fluid moves from the bag into the patient
  22. Drop Former
    Device that regulates the side of drops
  23. Medication Injection Port
    Self-sealing membrane into which a hypodermic needle is inserted for drug administration
  24. Needle Adapter
    Rigid plasted device specifically constructed to fit into the hub of an intravenous cannula
  25. Extension Tubing
    IV tubing used to extend a macrodrip or microdrip setup
  26. Measured Volume Administration Set
    IV setup that delivers specific volumes of fluid
  27. Burette Chamber
    Calibrated chamber of Berutol IV administration tubing that enables precise measurement and delivery of fluids and medicated solutions
  28. Blood Tubing
    Administration tubing that contains a filter to prevent clot or other debris from entering patient
  29. Over-The-Needle Catheter/Angiocatheter
    Semiflexible catheter enclosing a sharp metal stylet
  30. Hollow-Needle Catheter
    Stylet does not have a Teflon tube but it itself is inserted into the vein and secured there
  31. Catheter Inserted Through The Needle
    Teflon catheter inserted through a large metal styler
  32. Venous Constricting Band
    Flat rubber band used to impede venous return and make veins easier to see
  33. Extravasation
    Leakage of fluid or medication from the blood vessel that is commonly found with infiltration
  34. IV Troubleshooting
    • -Tourniquet in place still?
    • -Edema at site?
    • -Cannula abutting valve or vein wall?
    • -Administration set control valve closed?
    • -IV bag too low?
    • -Completely filled drip chamber?
    • -Catheter patent?
  35. IV Access Complications
    • -Pain
    • -Local infection
    • -Pyrogenic reaction
    • -Allergic reaction
    • -Catheter shear
    • -Inadvertent arterial puncture
    • -Circulatory overload
    • -Thrombophlebitis (vein inflammation)
    • -Thrombus formation
    • -Air embolism
    • -Nerosis
    • -Anticoagulants
  36. Pyrogen
    Foreign protein capable of producing fever
  37. Embolus
    Foreign particle in blood
  38. Circulatory Overload
    An excess in intravascular fluid
  39. Thrombophlebitis
    Inflammation of the vein
  40. Thrombus
    Blood clot
  41. Air Embolism
    Air in the vein
  42. Necrosis
    The sloughing off of dead tissue
  43. Anticoagulant
    Drug that inhibits blood clotting
  44. Saline Lock
    Peripheral IV cannula with distal medication port used for intermittent fluid or medication infusions. Saline is injected into the device to maintain its patency
  45. Heparin Lock
    Same as Saline Lock only with Heparin
  46. Venous Access Device
    Surgically implanted port that permits repeated access to central venous circulation
  47. Huber Needle
    Needle that has an opening on the side of the shaft instead of the tip
  48. Infusion Controller
    Gravity-flow device that regulates fluid's passage through and electromechanical pump
  49. Extravascular
    Outside the vein
  50. Infusion Pump
    Device that delivers fluids and medications under pressure
  51. Blood Tube
    Glass container with color-coded, self sealing rubber top
  52. Vacutainer
    Device that holds blood tubes
  53. Multidraw Needle
    Long, exposed needle that screws into the vacutainer and is inserted directly into the vein
  54. Blood Tube Colors
    • -Red: No anticoagulant
    • -Blue: Citrate
    • -Green: Heparin
    • -Purple: EDTA
    • -Gray: Fluoride
  55. Hemoconcentration
    Elevated numbers of red and white blood cells
  56. Hemolysis
    The destruction of red blood cells
  57. Intraosseous
    Within the bone
  58. Trocar
    A sharp, pointed instrument
  59. Intraosseous Access Complications
    • -Fracture
    • -Infiltration
    • -Growth plate damage
    • -Complete insertion
    • -Pulmonary embolism
    • -Infection
  60. Contraindications to IO
    • -Fracture near site
    • -Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • -Osteoperosis
    • -Establishment of IV

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