Test 4 Special Senses

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Test 4 Special Senses
2011-12-04 18:41:41

A&P 1
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  1. Arrange the following to reflect the correct sequence an action potential would follow to reach the lateral olfactory area of the brain:
    1. olfactory bulb
    2. olfactory cortex
    3. olfactory epithelium
    4. olfactory tract
    D) 3, 1, 4, 2
  2. Why does inhaling deeply and slowly through the nose help to identify an odor?
    A) More air containing the odor is brought into contact with the olfactory epithelium.
  3. The lateral olfactory area
    B) is the site of conscious perception of odors.
  4. Which of the following statements is true?
    A) Damaged olfactory neurons are replaced.
  5. Which of the following special senses is relayed directly to the cerebral cortex without going to the thalamus?
    A) smell
  6. Sensory structures that detect taste are
    C) taste buds.
  7. Damage to which of the following cranial nerves may impair the sense of taste?
    A) facial
  8. Arrange the following in correct sequence:
    1. gustatory cell depolarizes
    2. action potential stimulated in gustatory neurons 3. food substance dissolves in saliva
    4. neurotransmitter released by gustatory cell
    5. food substance enters taste pore and attaches to receptor on gustatory hair
    B) 3, 5, 1, 4, 2
  9. You taste a sauce with the "tip of your tongue". These taste sensations would be carried via the _____ cranial nerve.
    A) facial (VII)
  10. Which of the following structures is considered to be an accessory structure of the eye?
    D) palpebrae
  11. Palpebrae is another name for the
    B) eyelids.
  12. Some thyroid disorders are characterized by an increase in the width of the palpebral fissure. This would be an increase in the distance between the
    C) eyelids.
  13. The blink reflex is designed to
    D) keep the eyes moist.
  14. An inflammation of one of the ciliary glands of the eyelashes is called a
    A) sty.
  15. The transparent mucous membrane that covers the anterior surface of the eye is the
    C) bulbar conjunctiva.
  16. Pinkeye is an inflammation of the
    D) conjunctiva.
  17. The lacrimal glands
    B) constantly produce a fluid called tears.
  18. Tears
    B) wash foreign objects away from the eye.
  19. Why does a person's nose run when he cries?
    A) Tears drain into the nasal cavity via the nasolacrimal duct.
  20. Which of the following cranial nerves innervates an eye muscle?
    C) abducens
  21. The outermost tunic of the eyeball is the
    B) sclera.
  22. The transparent anterior portion of the sclera is the
    C) cornea.
  23. Increased fluid accumulation in the cornea would result in
    A) a scattering of light rays.
  24. The cornea
    D) is part of the focusing system of the eye.
  25. The cornea is relatively easy to transplant because
    B) it is easy to access and remove.
  26. Which of the structures listed below is part of the vascular tunic?
    A) iris
  27. The ciliary body
    C) consists of a ciliary ring and ciliary processes.
  28. The contractile structure that surrounds the pupil is the
    A) iris.
  29. In bright sunlight the pupil of your eye constricts and contracts the
    C) sphincter pupillae
  30. Which of the following is (are) associated with the retina?
    C) rods and cones
  31. The area of greatest visual acuity is the
    C) fovea centralis.
  32. Blood vessels enter the eye and nerve processes exit the eye at the
    A) optic disc.
  33. The optic disc
    E) contains no photoreceptor cells.
  34. The anterior and posterior compartments of the eye are separated by the
    A) lens.
  35. Which of the following functions is carried out by both aqueous and vitreous humor?
    C) refraction of light rays
  36. Vitreous humor
    D) helps to hold the lens and retina in place.
  37. Glaucoma can result from
    A) inhibition of the circulation of aqueous humor.
  38. The lens
    B) focuses light on the retina.
  39. Which of the following is correctly matched?
    B) iris - sphincter pupillae
  40. Light converges as it passes through the
    D) lens, cornea and humors of the eye.
  41. For distant vision,
    C) the ciliary muscles are relaxed.
  42. To focus on objects closer than 20 feet,
    C) the ciliary muscles must contract.
  43. Increase in the distance from the eye to the near point of vision can be caused by
    A) the lens becoming more rigid with age.
  44. When you try to focus on the tip of your nose,
    C) the lens becomes more spherical.
  45. As an object moves closer to the eye,
    B) the eyes rotate medially.
  46. The main factor affecting depth of focus is the
    E) size of the pupil.
  47. The pigmented layer of the retina
    B) results in increased visual acuity.
  48. Light and dark adaptation involves
    • E) A, B and C
    • A)pupillary reflexes.
    • B)variations in rod and cone function.
    • C)changes in the amount of available rhodopsin.
  49. Color vision
    A) is a function of cone cells.
  50. To which colors are the three different kinds of cones sensitive?
    B) red, blue, and green
  51. Which of the following is false?
    E) Most of the optic tract axons terminate in the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
  52. The photoreceptor cells are located
    C) in the photoreceptive layer of the retina.
  53. The correct pathway for impulses leaving the retina is
    B) photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve.
  54. Arrange the following events in correct sequence. 1. retinal cells generate action potential
    2. person becomes aware of the information obtained by CNS
    3. visual cortex translates action potential
    4. bright light is shone into the eye
    5. optic nerve conducts action potential to CNS
    D) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
  55. Damage to the left side of the brain near the visual cortex could result in which of the following visual changes?
    C) loss of right visual fields from both eyes
  56. A person loses all vision in their left eye. One possible cause could be damage to the
    C) optic nerve in the left eye.
  57. Depth perception
    D) is the ability to distinguish between near and far objects and judge their distance.
  58. The age-associated changes that result in loss of accommodation of the eyes is called
    C) presbyopia.
  59. Which portion of the ear contains the sense organs for hearing and balance?
    C) inner ear
  60. The external ear terminates at the
    C) tympanic membrane.
  61. The auditory tube
    E) equalizes air pressure between the middle ear and outside air.
  62. Rapid changes in altitude can distort the eardrum. Symptoms that may occur include
    C) muffled sounds.
  63. The malleus, incus, and stapes
    D) transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the oval window.
  64. Sensory receptors for balance are found in the
    D) semicircular canals.
  65. Which of the following sequences is correct?
    A) oval window, vestibule, scala vestibuli
  66. Which of the following is part of the spiral organ (organ of Corti)?
    C) hair cells
  67. Which of the following is a part of the bony labyrinth?
    B) vestibule
  68. The sensory cells for hearing are located in the
    A) organ of Corti or spiral organ.
  69. Which of the following definitions best describes the timbre of sounds?
    D) resonance quality
  70. The direction from which a sound is coming can be determined by the
    D) differences in the time that sound waves take to reach each ear.
  71. Arrange the following structures in the order in which they vibrate when a sound wave enters the ear.
    1. eardrum
    2. endolymph
    3. ossicles
    4. oval window
    5. perilymph
    E) 1, 3, 4, 5, 2
  72. The attenuation (accustic) reflex
    C) prevents damage to delicate ear structures
  73. The round window
    D) acts as a mechanical release for waves within the cochlea.
  74. Arrange the following list of membranes in correct sequence.
    1. tectorial membrane
    2. vestibular membrane
    3. tympanic membrane
    4. basilar membrane
    C) 3, 2, 4, 1
  75. Arrange the following structures in the order in which they would vibrate as a result of the tympanic membrane vibrating.
    1. oval window 2. vestibular membrane and endolymph
    3. ossicles 4. basilar membrane 5. perilymph
    D) 3, 1, 5, 2, 4
  76. Cochlear neurons are stimulated by
    C) bending microvilli or stereocilia on the hair cells.
  77. Auditory impulses are transmitted by the _____ portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
    B) cochlear
  78. Arrange the following parts of the neuronal pathway for hearing in the correct sequence.
    1. inferior colliculus 2. medial geniculate nucleus 3. superior olivary nucleus
    4. auditory cortex 5. cochlear nucleus
    B)5, 3, 1, 2, 4
  79. The semicircular canals
    E) allow a person to detect movement in all directions.
  80. Damage to the vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve would result in loss of
  81. Myopia
    difficulty seeing distant objects
  82. Cataract
    clouding of the lens of the eye
  83. Astigmatism
    a type of refractory error
  84. Glaucoma
    increased intraocular pressure that can lead to loss of vision
  85. The pinna and external auditory meatus are part of this
    external ear
  86. Air-filled space within the temporal bone
    middle ear
  87. Part of the ear that contains the organ of hearing
    inner ear
  88. Fleshy portion of the external ear
  89. Eardrum
    tympanic membrane
  90. Passageway from the outside to the tympanic membrane
    external auditory meatus
  91. tiny bones in the middle ear
    auditory ossicles
  92. interconnecting tunnels in the temporal bone
    bony labyrinth
  93. structures that produce earwax
    ceruminous glands
  94. connects the middle ear to the pharynx
    auditory tube
  95. fluid in the membranous labyrinth
  96. The area of the olfactory cortex that is involved in the conscious perception of smell is the _________.
    lateral olfactory area
  97. Taste buds consist of support and _____________ cells.
  98. The muscles that dilate the pupil are the _________ ___________.
    dilator pupillae
  99. The bending of light is called _________.
  100. The point at which light waves converge is called the _________.
    focal point
  101. vision results because a slightly different image is seen by each eye.
  102. In the retina the rods and cones synapse with ___________ cells that in turn synapse with ganglion cells, which form the optic nerve.
  103. The fluid inside the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear is ____________.
  104. The ____________ tube connects the middle ear to the pharynx.
  105. The three ossicles are: ____________, ____________, ___________.
    malleus, incus, stapes
  106. the cerebral area that integrates messages from retina
    visual cortex
  107. the route of the ganglionic axons beyond the chiasma
    optic tract
  108. the portion of the retina with the greatest visual acuity
    fovea centralis
  109. blood vessels enter and the optic nerve exits here
    optic disc
  110. a jellylike substance in the posterior cavity of the eye
    vitreous humor
  111. the fluid that fills the anterior cavity of the eye
    aqueous humor
  112. Why do wine tasters both smell and taste wine to judge its quality?
    Taste sensations can be strongly influenced by olfactory sensations. Much of what we refer to as "taste" is related to olfactory sensations. Wine tasters, by combining taste and smell, are better able to judge the quality of the "taste" of a wine.