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What are some possible causes of gastric dilation in horses? 4
- Obstruction, displacement
- Grass sickness or dysautonomia (Northern Europe)
- Ingestion of poorly digestable substances
- Degeneration of autonomic ganglia
What are some possible causes of chronic gastric dilation in canids? 3
- Secondary to gastric ulcer
- Gas accumulation
- Ganglionic death
What are some possible causes of rumen dilation in cows? 3
- Poor quality feed
- Vagal indigestion
What are some possible causes of acute gastric dilation in monkeys? 2
- New keeper
- Overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens
What are some possible causes of abomasal displacement in dairy cows? 3
- Intraabdominal pressure from advanced pregnancy
- Large amounts of high energy feed
- Genetic predisposition
At post-mortem how do you identify abomasal displacement in dairy cows?
Gas-filled atonic abomasum lying on left side of the rumen
What are some dog breeds are predisposed to GDV? 5
- German shepherds
- Great Danes
- Irish Setters
- Basset hound
What lesions are associated with GDV? 5
- Distended by gas and fetid fluid
- Venous infarction - congestion
- Necrosis of wall
What is the cause of Pig-edema disease?
Enterotoxin from E. coli
Where do you see edema in pig-edema disease? 6
- Spiral colon
- Gall bladder
What is the cause of Habronemiasis (granulomatous inflammation) in horses?
Draschia megastoma (nodules near margo plicatus)
What is the cause of canine pythiosis (granulomatous inflammation)?
What are some common parasites that cause granulomatous inflammation in the stomach? 4
- Draschia megastoma
- Pythium insidiosum
- Histoplasma capsulatum
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What are the different causes of hemorrhagic inflammation in the stomach? 4
- Parasitic (hemonchosis)
- Uremic gastritis
- Canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE)
What are different bacteria associated with hemorrhagic inflammation in the stomach? 2
- Clostridium perfringens (GDV)
- Clostridium septicum (Braxy caused by frozen feeds)
Which breeds of dogs is canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) most common?
Small breeds of dogs (toy and miniature)
What are some possible causes of ulcerative gastritis? 4
- Stress ulcers in pigs
- Bovine leukosis
- Equine bots
What parasite causes chronic hyperplastic abomastitis and is the cause of the abomasum having a multinodular apperance that resembles Morocco leather and cobblestone?
Ostertagia spp. (cattle)
What are some parasites that cause chronic hyperplastic gastritis or abomasitis? 5
- Ostertagia sp. (cattle)
- Nochtia nocti (monkey)
- Habronema spp. (horses)
- Trichostrongylus axei (horse)
- Hyostrongylus rubidus (pigs)
What are the different possible causes of gastric ulceration/species? 5
- Stress (all species)
- Feed of fine consistency, anorexia (pig)
- Dietary changes (cows)
- Secondary to mast cell tumors (dog, cat)
- Glucocorticoids and NSAIDs (horses)
What are the possible pathogenesis that lead to gastric ulceration? 2
- Compromised mucosal protective mechanisms
What is a red to brown crater-like focus found in the stomach that has a white depressed scar if healed?
What are some common sites of gastric ulcers in pigs?
Esophageal region of stomach
What are some common sites of gastric ulcers in horses? 3
- Esophageal region
- Margo plicatus
- Pyloric region
What are some common sites of gastric ulcers in dogs? 2
- Pyloric region
- Proximal duodenum
What are some common sites of abomasal ulcers in cattle?
What neoplastic disease in the cow is a white fleshy infiltration of the abomasal wall with overlying mucosal ulceration (Associated with BLV)?
What neoplastic disease in the horse originates from squamous epithelium in the esophageal region, infiltrates wall and implants on serosal surfaces of peritoneal cavity?
Squamous cell carcinoma
What neoplastic disease is often associated with the primate parasite Nochtia nocti and is often ulcerated?
What is the absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen?
What is the most common type of atresia in domestic animals?
Atresia coli (segmental atresia)
What is stricture of the intestines?
What is luminal obstruction?
What is a twist of the intestines around the mesenteric attachment PERPENDICULAR to the long axis of the gut?
What is a twist of the intestines around the mesenteric attachment parallel to the long axis of the gut?
What is telescoping of proximal segment of bowel into distal segment?
What are possible causes of edema related to the intestines? 2
- Alimentary tract parasites
- E. coli in pigs
What are some possible causes of thrombosis, embolism or infarction in the intestines?
- Arterial infarction and thromboembolism (Strongylus vulgaris)
- Venous infraction (strangulations and twists)
What viruses cause villous atrophy through acute loss of villous epithelial cells, which spp? 3
- Coronavirus (pigs, dogs, turkeys, ferrets, etc...)
- Rotavirus (mammals)
- Enteric Calicivirus, Breda virus
What are some possible results of necrotizing enteritis? 3
- Loss of villous epithelial cells
- Loss of crypt epithelial cells (radiomimetic lesioin)
What is the cause of villous atrophy through acute loss of crypt epithelial cells (radiomimetic lesion)? 2
- Enteric parvovirus (dog, cat)
- Panleukpenia virus (mink)