Path Final III

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HLW
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120660
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Path Final III
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2011-12-04 12:45:47
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Path Final III
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Path Final III
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  1. What deficiency can contribute to white muscle disease? 2
    • Selenium
    • Vitamin E
  2. What animals are affected by white muscle disease? 4
    • Young, rapidly growing:
    • Sheep
    • Cattle
    • Pigs
    • Mink
  3. What are the results of white muscle disease in calves? 2
    • Acute cardiac failure
    • Dyspnea
  4. What are the results of white muscle disease in lambs?
    Stiff lamb disease (Lesions develop in utero)
  5. What can white muscle disease cause in pigs? 3
    • Mulberry heart disease
    • Hepatosis dietetica
    • Yellow fat disease
  6. What exertional myopathy is known as "Monday morning disease" and paralytic myoglobinuria?
    Azoturia
  7. What are some factors involved in Azoturia (paralytic myoglobinuria)? 3
    • Electrolyte abnormalities (Na, K, Ca)
    • Se deficiency
    • Forced exercise after a period of rest when feed is not restricted
  8. What is an acute and ofter fatal exertional myopathy of wild mammals and birds?
    Capture myopathy (pronounced acidosis)
  9. What are some ionophores that can cause toxic myopathy? 4
    • Monensin
    • Salinomycin
    • Narasin
    • Lasolacid
  10. Which animals are most susceptible to monensin toxicity?
    Horses
  11. How do ionophores affect the body?
    • Facilitate movement of cations (Na, Ca) across cell membranes
    • Cause cardiovascular shock/collapse
  12. What substance in cotton seeds is toxic and can cause muscle necrosis?
    Gossypol
  13. What are some factors that can contribute to hypokalemic myopathy in cattle? 3
    • Hypokalemia (anorexia and ketosis)
    • Glucocorticoids
    • IV glucose or insulin
  14. What are some factors that can contribute to hypokalemic myopathy in cats? 6
    • Abnormal skeletal muscle energy metabolism
    • Ischemia due to vasoconstriction
    • Decreased dietary intake of K
    • Increased urinary excretion of K
    • Secondary to GIT disease
    • Hyperthyroidism
  15. What are some factors that can contribute to Hypophosphatemia in cattle? 4
    • Dietary, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Hypercortisolism/CRF
    • Diuretics
  16. What heritable hypermetabolic syndrome in pigs is characterized by respiratory and metabolic acidosis, myoglobinemia, hyperkalemia, high blood lactate, hyperthermia, and cardiovascular collapse (death)?
    Porcine stress syndrome (PSS)
  17. What breeds of pigs are susceptible to Porcine stress syndrome? 6
    • Landrace
    • Pietran
    • Hampshire
    • Yorkshire
    • Poland
    • China
  18. What factors can contribute to Porcine stress syndrome? 5
    • Fighting
    • Exercise
    • Crowding
    • Transporting
    • Halothane anesthesia
  19. What syndrome is characterized by degeneration and necrosis of muscles that are surrounded with a heavy aponeurosis (connective tissue)?
    Compartment Syndrome
  20. In which animals do you see compartment syndrome?
    Poultry
  21. In which animals do you see deep pectoral myopathy? 2
    • Poultry
    • Turkey
  22. What acute fatal emphysematous myositis is caused by Clostridium chauvoei?
    Blackleg
  23. What type of myositis shows up as well-demarcated green foci that fades to an off-white when exposed to air?
    Eosinophilic myositis of ruminants
  24. What type of myositis is the result of an autoimmune reaction against type IIc fibers of masticatory muscles?
    Eosinophilic myositis
  25. What disease is a rare and acute (relapsing) eosinophilic myositis in dogs (especially German Shepherds) characterized by swollen painful jaws and blood eosinophila?
    Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM)
  26. What is the pathogenesis of masticatory muscle myositis in dogs?
    Auto-antibodies against a particular protein present in type IIc fibers
  27. When is Purpura hemorrhagic in horses usually seen?
    Following strangles (Streptococcus equi)
  28. What is the etiology behind edema of head and limbs in horses with purpura hemorrhagica?
    Immune complexes contain IgA and S. equi-specific antigens
  29. What are some possible causes of granulomatous myositis? 5
    • TB
    • Systemic mycoses
    • Metazoan parasites
    • Trichinella spiralis, cysticercosis
    • Roeckl's granuloma of cattle
  30. What important protozoal disease affects primarily herbivores and pigs?
    Sarcocystosis (Sarcosporidiosis)
  31. What is a benign and generally congenital tumor of skeletal muscle frequently found in the cow, sheep and pig?
    Rhabdomyoma (in heart)
  32. What malignant counterpart of the rhabdomyoma is commonly found in the cow, sheep, dog and horse?
    Rhabdomyosarcoma
  33. What disease of the neuromuscular junction causes weakness and severe muscular fatigue and is seen in dogs and cats?
    Myasthenia gravis
  34. What congenital defect is the cause of myasthenia gravis in Jack Russell terriers, Springer spaniels, and smooth fox terriers?
    Reduced number of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors
  35. What acquired defect is the cause of myasthenia gravis in Akitas, German shorthaired pointers, Chihuahuas, Rottweilers, and Abyssinian cats?
    Develop antibodies (IgG) against ACh receptors

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