Path Final II

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HLW
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120661
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Path Final II
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2011-12-04 12:47:27
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Path Final II
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Path Final II
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  1. What type of enteritis is characterized by the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, epitheloid cells and giant cells?
    Granulomatous enteritis
  2. What type of enteritis is caused by chronic villous atrophy with high turn-over rates of epithelium?
    Granulomatous enteritis
  3. What are the different possible causes of diffuse granulomatous inflammation? 4
    • Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cattle (Johne's disease)
    • Hisoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum in dogs)
    • Pythiosis (Pythium insidiosum)
    • Salmon poisoning of dog (Neoricketsia helminthoeca)
  4. What are some possible causes of nodular granulomatous inflammation of the intestines? 2
    • Oesophagostomiasis in ruminants in pigs
    • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) coronavirus
  5. What are some diseases that cause proliferative lesions in mucosa or serosa? 4
    • Proliferative enteritis (pigs)
    • Proliferative ileitis/typhlitis/colitis (hamsters, puppies, foals, rabbits)
    • Chronic coccidiosis (sheep and goats)
    • Canine parvovirus 1
  6. What is the cause of proliferative enteritis in postweaning pigs (pigs > 4 weeks of age)? 2
    • Lawsonia intracellularis
    • Campylobacter-like organism
  7. What disease is characterized by nodular polypoid structures about 0.3 - 1.5 cm in diameter encountered in the small intestine mucosa?
    Chronic coccidiosis
  8. What are some possible causes of hemorrhagic enteritis? 6
    • Bacteria
    • Parasites
    • Idiopathic
    • Lawsonia intracellularis
    • Canine and feline parvovirus
    • Bovine chlamydiosis
  9. What bacteria cause hemorrhagic enteritis? 4
    • Clostridium perfringens type C enterotoxemia
    • Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
    • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
    • Citrobacter freundii
  10. What parasites cause hemorrhagic enteritis? 4
    • Coccidiosis
    • Trichuris sp.
    • Ancylostoma sp.
    • Strongylus edentatus
  11. What bacteria causes swine dysentery in 8 to 14 week old pigs?
    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
  12. What bacteria causes hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine and colon?
    Citrobacter freundii
  13. What parasite causes hemorrhages in the cecum/colon, diarrhea, anemia, and hypoproteinemia?
    Trichuris sp.
  14. What parasite is the cause of degeneration, loss of villous enterocytes, hemorrhage, and diphtheresis?
    Acute coccidiosis
  15. What parasite is the cause of multifocal ulcerations with hemorrhages in intestines?
    Ancylostoma sp.
  16. What parasite is the cause of irregular hemorrhagic subserosal plaques on the antimesenteric margin of the ileum and other segments of gut?
    Strongylus edentatus
  17. What bacteria is the cause of fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis, submucosal vascular thrombi and ischemic necrosis cause characteristic round "button" ulcers in the spiral colon of pigs?
    Salmonella sp.
  18. What gram +ve rod causes necrosis of GALT with an extension to overlying epithelium and pyogranulomatous, fibrinonecrotic to ulcerative ileotyphlocolitis?
    Rhodococcus equi (foals)
  19. What viruses cause fibrinonecrotic/ulcerative lesions in the intestines? 3
    • BVD/mucosal disease (cattle)
    • Rinderpest (cattle)
    • Malignant cararrhal fever
  20. What virus of cattle causes the loss of undifferentiated crypt cells, necrosis of GALT, focal degeneration of epithelial cells resulting in a fibrinonecrotizing/ulcerative enterocolitis?
    BVD/mucosal disease
  21. What is the most commonly reported cause of protein-losing enteropathy in dogs?
    Lymphangiectasia
  22. What are the possible causes of lymphangiectasia? 3
    • Congenital (lymph vessels did not develop properly)
    • Idiopathic
    • Lymph vessel obstruction
  23. Lymphangiectasia causes the small intestinal mucosa to look like what?
    White shag carpet
  24. What is a hereditary change associated with an increase in the number of myofibers in muscles?
    Muscular hyperplasia (calves and lambs)
  25. Which breed of cattle is more prone to muscular hyperplasia? 2
    • Charolais cattle
    • Belgian Blue
  26. What muscle disease is the cause of splaying of the limbs to the side (abduction) in pigs?
    Myofibrillar hypoplasia
  27. What are some possible causes of myofibrillar hypoplasia in pigs? 3
    • Hereditary
    • Teratogenic causes (Zearalenone: Fusarium roseum)
    • Choline or methionine deficiency
  28. What animals is Myotonia (channelopathies) seen most in? 6
    • Thoroughbreds
    • Standardbreds
    • Quarterhorses
    • Goats, dogs and cats
  29. What disease is caused by sustained involuntary contraction of muscle groups?
    Myotonia (channelopathies)
  30. What is the cause of myotonia (channelopathies)?
    Defective chloride channel activity
  31. What disease is the cause of a genetic mutation in skeletal muscle sodium channels that affect quarterhorses?
    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)
  32. What are the results of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis? 3
    • laryngospasms
    • Trembling, weakness, collapse
    • Metabolic acidosis - cardiotoxicity, pulmonary edema
  33. What group of hereditary and idiopathic diseases are characterized by progressive weakness and muscular degeneration because of the absence or presence of abnormal muscular proteins?
    Muscular dystrophy
  34. What are some examples of muscular dystrophy in animals? 3
    • Inherited in Merino sheep
    • Canine X-linked muscular dystrophy
    • Heritable Myopathy of Labrador Retrievers (HMLR)
  35. What are the three different responses to muscle injury? 3
    • Degeneration
    • Necrosis
    • Regeneration
  36. What muscle injury response is characterized by glistening, white, chalky foci (streaks) in the muscle?
    Degeneration
  37. What muscle injury response is characterized by pallor, dry and gritty muscle? 2
    • Necrosis
    • Metabolic acidosis - cardiotoxicity, pulmonary edema

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