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Acne Vulgaris is a disease of the _______________ units of the skin.
Where is acne most commonly presented on the body?
Acne is a _________ disease and is linked to the onset of ______________.
When does acne develop in males? And when does it resolve?
- Develops: 12-18
- Resolves: mid 20s
When does acne develop in females? And when does it become problematic again?
- Develops: 15-17
- Problematic: 3rd or 4th decade
Which hormone plays a role in acne?
What are the 3 layers of the skin?
- Subcutaneous layer
What layer of the skin provides protection (like a raincoat)?
What 2 layers of the epidermis are most important in acne?
- Stratum Corneum
- Stratum Germinativum
What is the role of the stratum corneum?
- outermost layer of epidermis
- sheds dead cells (q25-30days)
What is the role of the stratum germinativum?
- Innermost layer of epidermis (next to dermis)
- formation of new cells
Describe the process of new skin cell formation to cell death/shedding.
- New cells form (mitosis) in germin layer
- Move up thru layers (b/cm squished)
- Cells take in keratin/lose organelles
- Cell dies and sheds of in corneum layer
What is the supportive layer of the skin, that prevents tearing?
What does the dermis mostly contain?
- connective tissue/collagen
- blood vessels
- hair follicles
- sebaceous glands
- sweat glands
Which layer of the skin stores fat, provides insulation and provides protection?
The subcutaneous layer consists of ____________ and is __________ to increase mobility over structures/organs.
What do the pilosebaceous units consist of?
- hair follicle
- sebaceous gland
- (connected to skin surface by duct)
What is the duct of the sebaceous unit surrounded by?
Where is the hair follicle located?
Epidermis and dermis
What do sebaceous glands produce?
Oil passes to the ____________ and spreads over _____________.
What is the purpose of sebum/oil?
prevent water loss
Where are sebaceous glands located?
next to hair follicle
Explain 2 ways how dead cells are shed through hair follicles.
- Carried out by oil
- Conform in to hair follicle
How do hair follicles become clogged (in respect to cells)?
An increase rate in turnover (clumps up and block)
When does blocking of hair follicles become acne?
Bacteria (P. ances) gets stuck and thrive because of the presence of oil
Which sweat glands open directly to the skin?
What type of solution does eccrine sweat glands produce? Does it affect hair follicles?
What type of sweat glands open into hair follicles?
What type of solution does apocrine glands produce?
When are apocrine glands active?
What reaction produces musky body ordor?
bacteria on skin and apocrine sweat
What is the classification of a closed comedone?
- closed plug of sebaceous matter
- small, firm, elevation
- no white head (not near surface)
- no inflammation
What is the classification of an open comedone?
- open plug of sebaceous matter
- blackened mass of epithelial debris (oxidation)
What is the classification of a papule?
- inflamed comedone
- small circumscrobed elevation of the skin
- expanded outside of hair follicle
- DONT POP
What is the classification of a pustule?
- inflamed comedone
- small circumscibed elevation w/ purulent material (white head)
Why dont you want to pop pimples?
- Only some pus escapes
- The rest is pushed down- which causes more problems
What is the classification of a nodule?
- large pus-filled deep seated painful lump
- will cause scarring
What are the (8) proven contributing factors of acne?
- Disease- polycystic ovarian syndrome
- High humidity/profuse sweating
- Local irritation/friction
- Cosmetics (oil based)
- Hair products
What are the unproven contributing factors of acne?
- sexual activity
- diet (chocolate, nuts, cola)
- dirty skin
What are the (4) treatment goals of acne?
- relieve discomfort
- improve skin appearance
- prevent pitting & scarring
- prevent distress and social rejection
What (2) things occur due to androgen production that cause acne?
- sebum production
What (2) things cause pores to become clogged?
- increased keratin
- increased oil/fluid
What is the bacterial component of acne?
List characteristics of P. acnes.
- Normal Flora
- Gram +
- Anaerobic rods
- produce lipases---which form free fatty acids from sebum
- makes proprionic acid
What is the inflammatory component of acne?
- response to irritation by fatty acids
- immune response to bacteria
What are the exclusions of self care for acne?
- moderate/severe acne
- drug induced
- possible rosacea
- if acne does not improve in 8 weeks with self care
Drugs that can induce acne?
What is the nickname for Rosacea?
When doe rosacea appear?
grater than 20yrs
What causes rosacea?
genetics (not endocrine changes)
What are the symptoms of rosacea?
- sensitive to touch
- red pustules/papules
- enlarged blood vessels
Where does rosacea occur?
towards the center of the face (T-zone)
What are the treatments for Rosacea?
- Metrogel, Finacea
- avoiding aggravating factors--anything that will flush the skin