bio17.txt

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itzlinds
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120675
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bio17.txt
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2011-12-05 15:27:58
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Endocrine System
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Endocrine System
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  1. compare and contrast the endocrine and nervous systems:
    • Endocrine
    • slow, wireless
    • hormones released into bloodstream
    • long duration
    • systemic effects

    • Nervous
    • fast, wired
    • NT released at synapse
    • short duration
    • localized effects


    contrast: the systems compliment each other, some chemicals fxn in both systems (NE)
  2. Describe the high level fxns of the endocrine system:
    • regulate cellular metabolism
    • maintain h2o, electrolyte, and nutirent balances
    • promote growth and development
    • helps body with stress control
    • controls reproduction
  3. distinguish between the endocrine and exocrine glands:
    • endocrine
    • "endo" inside, "crine" secrete
    • ductless
    • secretes into bloodstream
    • intracellular effects

    • exocrine
    • "exo" outside, "crine" secretes
    • uses ducts
    • secretes into a surface/lumen
    • extracellular effects
  4. Explain the difference between hormones, paracrine messengers and autocrine messengers:
    hormones: chemcial messangers released into the bloodstream that stimulate a response in cells of another tissue or organ a distance away

    paracrine: secreted by one cell, then diffused to a nearby cell in the same tissue

    autocrine: "self secrete", action on the cell that secretes it
  5. describe the peptide class of hormones according to the chemial nature, solubility, and other properties:
    • derived from amino acids
    • hydrophillic
    • travel freely in the body
    • bind to extracellular receptors
    • fast effects, rapid degeneration
    • examples: LH, FSH, ADH, insulin
  6. describe the steroid class of hormones according to the chedemial nature, solubility and other properties:
    • derived from cholesterol
    • hydrophobic
    • require a protein carrier to travel in blood
    • bind to intracellular receptors
    • slow effects, long lasting
    • examples: testosterone, estrongen, cortisol, aldosterone
  7. describe the monoamine class of hormones according to the chemical nature, solubility, and other properties:
    • derived from an amino acid, like tyrosine
    • example: thyroid hormone T3, T4
    • characteristics are similar to steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol, hydrophobic, require a protein carrier to travel in blood, bind to intracellualr receptors, slow effects, long lasting)


    • catecholamines
    • examples are epinephrine, and norephinephrine, charasterics are similar to pepties
  8. describe how lipid soluble and water soluble hormones interat with target cells to produce intracellular changes:
    • hydrophillic hormones
    • binds to extracellular receptors
    • activates 2nd messanger
    • change cell rapidly

    • hyrdophobic hormones
    • binds to intracellular receptors
    • acts to change gentic expression
    • changes cell activity slowly

    • steroids and thyroids hormones bound to transport proteins
    • only cells with spectific receptors for a hormone will respond to that hormone (THS will only st)imulate thryoid gland, not the adrenals)
  9. Explain the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system:
    • regulates primitive fxns of the body ranging from water balance and theromregulation to sex drive and childbirth
    • fxn are carried out by way of the pituitary gland
  10. describe the anatomcial relationship between the hypothalamus and the anterior and posterior pituitary glands:
    • pituitary gland: housed in the sella turica of the sphenoid bone
    • posterior pituitary: aka, neurohypophysis, neuro pituitary, derived from nervous tissue, size of a kidney bean
    • anterior pituitary: aka adenohypophysis, glandular pituitary, develops from epithelial tissue (same as in the mouth)

    each are two separate glands
  11. describe the hormones and fxns of them secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
    • vasopressin: ADH, water retention by the kidney's
    • oxytocin: uterine contraction causes release, release facilitates milk production for breast feeding
    • = nervous tissue, hormones made in cell bodies in hypothalamus
  12. explain the role of the hypophyseal portal vessels linking hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland:
    • instead of a neural connection, there is a vascular connection
    • a network of capillaries in the hypothalamus, a group of small veins travel down the stalk, to the capillaries in the anterior pituitary gland
  13. describe the loaction, basic anatomy, and hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland:
    • location: sella turcica, sphenoid bone
    • basic anatomy: hypophyseal portal system (a network of complex blood vessels), epithelial tissue
    • hormones: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH)
  14. describe the location, basic anatomy, and hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland:
    • location: sella turcica, sphenoid bone
    • basic anatomy: nervous tissue
    • hormones: anidiuretic hormone (ADH), oxytocin (OT)
  15. describe the location, basic anatomy and hormones secreted by the thyroid gland:
    • location: adjacent to the trachea, below the larynx
    • basic anatomy: follicular cells - protein rich, simple cuboidal epithelium, c parafollicular cells - respone to rising levels of calcium
    • hormones: T3, T4, calcitonin
  16. describe the location, basic anatomy, and hormones secreted by the parathyroid gland:
    • location: 4 ovoid glands embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid
    • basic anatomy:
    • hormones: PTH
  17. describe the location, basic anatomy, and hormones secreted by the pancreas:
    • location: below and behind the stomach
    • basic anatomy:
    • hormones: alpha cells, beta cells
  18. describe the location, basic anatomy, and hormones secreted by the adrenal glands:
    • location: superior pole of each kidney
    • basic anatomy:
    • andrenal medulla
    • inner layer, modified sympathetic ganglion, no postganglionic fibers, cell bodies with no axon.
    • stimulate in response to fear, pain, anxiety
    • secrete: catecholamines - epinephrine, norepiephrine

    • adrenal cortex
    • outer layer - 80% of the gland
    • secretes: steroid hormones, mineralocoritcoids (aldosterone), glucocrticoids (cortisol), sex steroids (testosterone, estrogen)
  19. describe the location, basic anatomy and hormones secreted by the gonads:
    • location: ovaries, testes
    • basic anatomy:
    • hormones: progesterone, testosterone
  20. describe the physiological effects of teh assigned hormones produced by the thryoid gland and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    thyroid hormones (T3, T4): increase metabolic rate at target organ (incrase Na+/K+/ATP ase pump), increase SNS responses (HR, respiration, and alertness, ect.), increase GH effects, fetal nervous development

    calcitonin: stimulates bone metabolism

    chemical classificiation: TH is monoamine, calcitonin is peptide
  21. describe the physisological effects of the parathyroid glands and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH): increases osteoclastic activity, increase calcium reabsorption in bone, increase calcim reabsorption in kidneys, increases calcium reabsorption in the GI tract * which all increases calcium in the blood

    classification: peptide
  22. describe the physisological effects of the adrenal medualla and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    Epiephrine, Norepinephrine: has SNS effects, increased alertness, HR, ect., mobilizes glucose

    classification: monoamines
  23. describe the physisological effects of the andrena cortex and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    • aldosterone: conserves Na+, excretes K+, maintains blood pressure, and blood volume
    • cortisol: stimulate fat/protein catabolism, repair damage tissues, adapt to stress (anything that distrupes homeostasis)

    classification: steroids
  24. describe the physisological effects of the pancreas and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    • alpha cells: glucagon- glycogen and fat breakdown, raises blood glucose levels
    • beta cells: insulin- lowers blood glucose levels, promotes nurtirent storage, fat storage, and protein synthesis

    classification: peptides
  25. describe the physisological effects of the gondas and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    • progesterone: regulates menstral cycle and pregnacy; prepares mammary glands for lactation
    • testosterone: stimulates fetal/reproductive developements, muscleoskeletal growth, sperm production

    classification: steroids
  26. describe the physisological effects of the anterior pituitary glands and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    • FSH: growth of ovarian follicles, sperm
    • LH: ovulation, testosterone secretion
    • TSH: growth of thyroid, TH secretion
    • ACTH: growth adrenal cortex, glucocorticoid secretion
    • prolactin: milk synthesis
    • GH: widespread growth

    classification: peptides
  27. describe the physisological effects of the posterior pituitary glands and classify them according to their chemical nature:
    • ADH: water rention
    • oxytocin: labor contractions, milk release,

    classification: peptides
  28. distinguish between hyposecretions and hypersecretions of hormones:
    • hyposecretions: decrease hormone secretion
    • hypersecretions: increase hormone secretions
  29. describe what gigantism is and what causes it:
    • Example: robert wadlow, tallest person in the world, shoe size 27, leg braces to walk, had heart problems, died at age 22
    • cause: hypersecretion of GH BEFORE epiphyseal plates close
  30. describe what acromegaly is and what causes it:
    • Example: andrea the giant, bone thickening (hands, feet, head, jaw), enlarged organs, increased plasma glucose
    • causes: hypersecretion of GH AFTER epiphyseal plate closes
  31. describe what dwarfism is and what causes it:
    • example: rolfs
    • cause: GH hyposecretion, deficiency of IGF or GH, recpetor insensitivty to IGF
  32. describe what a goiter is and what causes it:
    • example: large bubble under the neck
    • causes: Hypothalamus, anterior pituitary dont receive the negative feedback, so they keep secreting TSH
  33. explain the physiological effects of hypothyroidism
    • causes: hyposecretion of T3/T4, lack of dietary iodine
    • symptoms: low metabolism, fatigue, sleepy, decreased heart rate, increased weight gain, cold intolerance, and many others
  34. explain the phsyisological effects of hyperthyroidism:
    • causes: autoimmune disorder, congenitial, nodule development
    • symptoms: high metabolism, anxiety/nervous, insomnia, increased HR, decreased weight gain, heat intolerance, and many others
  35. explain the effects of hyposecretion fo cortisol:
    • addison's disease
    • low BP, low blood glucose, anxiety and fatigue
  36. explain the effects fo hypersecretion fo cortisol:
    • cushings disease
    • osteroporosis, muscle weariness, immune supressed
  37. explain the cause and describe the symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus:
    • casuse: descruction fo beta cells
    • symptoms: hyperglycemia, increased fat metabolism, atheroscholerosis, blindness, damage to kidney's and blood vessels, amputation
    • not curable, treated with diet and insulin
  38. explain the casue and describe the sypmtoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus:
    • cause: desensitized insulin receptors
    • symptoms: reduced insulin response, obsity, similar symptoms to type 1,
    • treat wiht diet and excerise, insulin may be requried
  39. A substance that is secreted by one cell and acts on cells nearby in the same tissue is called a/an:

    paracrine messenger
    autocrine messenger
    neurocrine messenger
    hormone
    exocrine messenger
    paracrine messenger
  40. What is the difference between an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland?

    Endocrine glands have no ducts and their secretions are typically released into the bloodstream.
    Exocrine gland secretions are typically released onto an epithelial surface or into a lumen and typically have intracellular effects.
    Exocrine glands have no ducts and their secretions typically have extracellular effects.
    Endocrine glands have no ducts and their secretions are typically released onto an epithelial surface or into a lumen
    endocrine glands have no ducts and their secretions are typically released into the bloodstream
  41. Which of the following glands is composed primarily of nervous tissue?

    posterior pituitary gland
    thymus
    adrenal glands
    anterior pituitary gland
    thyroid gland
    posterior pitutiary gland
  42. Which of the following is FALSE regarding steroid hormones?

    Cortisol is an example of a steroid hormone.
    Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol.
    Steroid hormones typically need to bind to transport proteins to travel through the bloodstream.
    Steroid hormones are hydrophobic.
    Steroid hormones bind to receptors on the extracellular surface of their target cell and cause rapid changes in cell activity.
    steroid hormones bind to the receptors on the extracellular surface of their target cell and cause rapid changes in cell activity
  43. match the following hormones with the organ that secretes them:

    PTH
    oxytocin
    epinephrine
    aldosterone
    glucogen
    progosterone
    • PTH: parathyroid glands
    • oxytocin: posterior pituitary gland
    • epinephrine: adreanal medulla
    • aldosterone: adrenal cortex
    • glucogen: pancreas
    • progestorone: ovaries
  44. Based on the feedback pathway for the regulation of thyroid hormone (TH), which of the following is FALSE?

    Increased levels of TSH will increase the amount of TRH released.
    Increased levels of TRH will increase the amount of TSH released.
    Increased levels of TH will decrease the amount of TSH released.
    Increased levels of TH will decrease the amount of TRH released.
    Increased levels of TSH will increase the amount of TH released.
    increased levels of TSH will increase the amount of TRH released
  45. Growth hormone (GH) has all of the following effects EXCEPT:

    promotes Ca2+ absorption by the digestive system
    increases the amount of IGF secreted by the liver
    increases the use of fatty acids for energy
    decreases protein synthesis
    stimulates osteoblast activity
    decrease protein synthesis
  46. match the following hormones with their fxns:
    decrease blood glucose
    increase blood calcium
    stimulates milk synithesis in mammary glands
    increase metabolic rate
    increase blood glucose and has anitinflammatory effects
    stimulates uterine contractions and the flow of milk from the mammary glands
    • decrease blood glucose: insluin
    • increase blood calcium: PTH
    • stimulates milk synithesis in mammary glands: PRL (prolactin)
    • increase metabolic rate: TH
    • increase blood glucose and has anitinflammatory effects: cortisol
    • stimulates uterine contractions and the flow of milk from the mammary glands: oxytocin
  47. Hypersecretion of ACTH or cortisol results in which of the following?

    Hypoglycemia (decreased blood glucose), hypotension (low blood pressure), and increased heart rate
    Weight gain, insomnia, and hypotension (low blood pressure)
    Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose), muscle weakness, and loss of bone mass Increased protein synthesis, increased
    osteoblast activity, and increased blood calcium
    hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose), muscle weakness and loss of bone mass

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