Geography 210

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Geography 210
2011-12-04 15:48:55

Chapters 9-13
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  1. Which of the following was not assumed by Weber in his least-cost theory?
    Agglomeration economies lead to higher transport and labor costs
  2. The largest single industrial area of Europe is centered on...
    The Ruhr Valley
  3. The substitution principle is part of which approach to industrial location?
    Profit maximization
  4. By the mid 1990s, 80% of the US nonfarm employment was involved in which type of activity?
  5. Secondary activities are concerned with...
    material processing and the production of goods
  6. The largest and most varied work force in the United States is found in...
  7. The largest manufacturing district in Japan is...
  8. Outsourcing is closely related to...
    comparative advantage
  9. Which of the following is not a major manufacturing region?
    Western South America
  10. The market control mechanism is measured by...
  11. Although it once had been te major manufacturing area in the country, by the mid-1990s manufacturing employment in eastern North America had dropped to below what percent?
  12. The least expensive form of freigh movement for long distances is...
    water transportation
  13. Which is the most relevant in the locations decision for the aluminum industry?
    electrical power
  14. The industrial policies of Eastern Europe have created...
    extremem environmental problems
  15. The lowest total costs for two vendors in a market are...
    at the midpoints of their halves of the market
  16. Jobs in which sector are not affected by the location of resources or market?
  17. Break of bulk points are sites where...
    goods have to be transferred from one type of carrier to another
  18. The Industrial Revolution in England began with which industry?
  19. Approximately what percentage of the world's nonagricultural employment is controlled by transnational corporations?
  20. The region of the world that is rapidly becoming the most productive industrial district is...
    Eastern Asia
  21. Locating a steel mill at Cleveland, Ohio was an example of...
    minimization of the total cost of collecting all the raw materials at one point
  22. The textile industry has begun to shift production to China, Bangladesh, Mexico, and Thailand because of...
    lower labor costs
  23. Industries that are considered "footloose"...
    consider transport costs a negligible factore in production
  24. The concept of conparative advantage helps to explain...
    regional specializations
  25. In planned Marxist economies such as in te former Soviet Union, the patterens of industrial developement are geared to...
    reional self-sufficiency
  26. Many less developed nations have difficulty reaching or maintaining which level in Rostow's stages of development?
  27. The transition to better health in many countries of the developing world is at risk of being reversed by all but this?
    the witholding of medical care programs by the World Health Organization from countires with socialist governments
  28. Labor force participation by women is primarily a function of ...
    cultural conditions
  29. A country can move along the continuum from less developed to more developed by means of...
    technology transfer
  30. Populations that do no receive the required dietary enery supply on a daily basis are found primarily in ...
    Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
  31. The increasing use of animal dung as a wood substitute for fuel in Africa and Asia has...
    caused a loss of manure for soil enrichment
  32. Which factor is not used to analyze a country's level of development?
    Size in area
  33. Regional income inequalities...
    are greater in less developed countries than in developed ones
  34. By the early 1990s, the countries of the South accounted for what percentage of Gross Global Product?
  35. Both the World Bank and the United Nations recognize Africa as a special problem region but not because of...
    its rapid population decline
  36. With respect to the relationship between GNP and energy consumption...
    each increases in direct relation to the other
  37. What proportion of the developing countries' population lives in poverty?
  38. Landlessness is a function of...
    an imbalance between the size of an agricultural labor force and the amount of arable land
  39. Industries that dominate in the less developed countries are classified as...
  40. Composite measures of countries on the national development continuum have been criticized for being too strongly based on...
    economic and infrastructure measures.
  41. The Physical Quality of Live Index (PQLI) includes all of the following factors except...
    housing quality
  42. With respect to the energy technology gap..
    it has widened at an accelerating rate between the developed and less developed countries
  43. Since 1970, the rate and extent of women's participation in the labor force have...
    increased in nearly every world region
  44. A disease that poses a threat of economic and political destabilization in some developing areas is..
  45. According to the Brandt report, poverty and underdevelopment are associated with...
    tropical conditions
  46. Over the past 30 years, the collective economies of the developing countries grew at an average annual percentage rate of..
  47. When the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank introduced the purchasing power parity (PPP) measure in 1993, the relative importance of the Third World..
  48. What proportion of the world's population does not receive sufficient food energy?
  49. The relationship between economic and social measures of development is..
    direct and proportional
  50. Worldwide, how many people lack the simple sanitary facilities essential to health?
    2 billion
  51. The least accessible locations within a city tend to be occupied by which land use?
  52. The urbanization process is resulting in which region having the larges cities of the world?
    Asia and Africa
  53. Which is not a characteristic of women's urban social space?
    Women tend to find employment in occupations that are more geographically concentrated than men's occupations
  54. Which statement concerning the multiplier effect is correct?
    The size of the effect is determined by the city's basic/nonbasic ratio
  55. Which is not a common feature of cities in the developing world?
    few of the large cities have modern centers of commerce
  56. Central places are so named because they...
    serve as nodal points for the distribution of goods and services to surrounding nonurban areas
  57. In the typical North American city, population densities are highest...
    just outside the central core of the city
  58. According to the rank-size rule, the third-ranked settlement with be what ratio to the size of the first-ranked settlement?
  59. Which is not considered a major reason for the increase in America's homeless population?
    increases in soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters run by nonprofit groups
  60. Which statement concerning zoning is not correct?
    It is designed to segregate different populations from each other
  61. Urbanization emerges out of rural settlement patterns when...
    trade develops between two or more settlements
  62. In which world region would a primate city hierachy most likely be found?
  63. Which of the following not classified as a major urban region?
    Eastern Europe
  64. In a city with a basic/nonbasic ration of 1:2.5, an increase of 10,000 basic sector jobs would generate how many new total employees in the city?
  65. The urban differences among European countries are based upon...
    the length of time the country has been a nation
  66. According to urban hierarchy theory, in any country one should reveive...
    few megalopolises
  67. At the beginning of this century only 13 metropolitan areas exceeded 1 million in population. By 1990, that figure exceeded
  68. Which of the following statements best describes the site of a city?
    Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers
  69. Which is the largest in areal extent?
    metropolitan area
  70. A country whos urban system approximates rank-size ordering is
    The United States
  71. The characteristic that most distinguishes metropolises in developing countries from those in Western nations is the...
    transporation networks
  72. The greates proportion of black segregation in the US is found inthe metropolitan areas of the...
    Midwest and Northeast
  73. A good indicator of social status is...
    the number of persons per room per housing unit
  74. "A city which is compact, with relatively high buildings and population densities, and a sharp break between urban and rural land uses on the periphery" describes the...
    East European city
  75. The "traditional bazaar city" is characteristic of cities in which world region?
    South Asia
  76. With respect to reional alliances..
    their formation often stimulates the creation of alliances left out of another alliance
  77. The 49th Parallel, separating Canada from US across much of Western North America, is classified as which type of boundary?
  78. Gerrymandering is..
    a form of drawing voting district boundaries that favors a political party
  79. Among the social institutions that promote nationalizm, the three most important are...
    schools, the military, and state religion
  80. The fact that the State of Illinois has over 6,000 local government units, ranging from counties to special-purpose sewer districts, is an example of..
    political fragmentation
  81. The two preconditions that are common to all reional autonomist movements are...
    territorial and nationality
  82. An example of a part-nation state is the
    Arab nation
  83. Exclusive economic zones (EEZ) recognized under tht Law of the Sea Convention extend outward from coasts by up to..
    370 kilometers
  84. The world's most powerful and far-reaching economic alliance is the
    European Union
  85. An important reason for the formation of unified governments is to..
    reduce the duplication of many services provided by local governments
  86. The most controversial provision of the Law of the Sea Convention has been..
    seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction
  87. National anthems are an example of
  88. Which is not an association regarding ethnic separation?
    Sikh - China
  89. In 1990 Iraqi invation of Kuwait resulted in part from what type of boundary dispute?
  90. Which would be considered a forward thrust capital city?
  91. Countries comprised mostly or exclusively of islands are classified as...
  92. Sinapore's primary resource is its
    relative location
  93. The least efficient shape for the management of a state is...
  94. The primary objective of local zoning ordinances in municipalities is to..
    control the uses to which land may be put
  95. Examples of stateless nations are
    Basques, Kurds, Palestinians
  96. When a capital city is spatially associated with its core region, it is called a..
    primate city
  97. The geopolitical theory that stressed the strategic advantages of land over sea power is known as ...
    the hearland theory
  98. The establishment of the origional three-mile limit of sovereignty from a nations' coastline permitted states to do all but this..
    prevent others from exercising their right of innocent passage
  99. Preservation of the tax base and tetention of expansion room for the central city are the driving forces behind..
    predevelopment annexation
  100. Whis is not considered to be a centripetal force in preserving state cohesiveness?
    United Nations membership
  101. The single most critical concern regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes is..
    no satisfactory method of disposal has yet been devised
  102. Which does not place growing demands on water supplies?
    hydrologic cycle
  103. One possible effect of global warming would be..
    coastal wetlands would be submerged
  104. The "quiet crisis" is the term given to the...
    depletion of agricultural soil through erosion
  105. The icebox effect may be created by
  106. The continent at the greatest risk of deserification is
  107. Which activity contributes to water pollution more than any other throughout the world?
  108. Depletion of the earth's ozone layer is not expected to lead to this...
    an increase in the sea temperatures causing melting of the polar ice caps
  109. With repect to the earth as a system, the hydrophere is concerned with..
  110. Acid rain is primarily a problem of
    developed nations
  111. te inernational shipping hazardous wastes is..
  112. The greenhouse effect is related most closely to..
    increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide
  113. The agricultural practice of terracing
    decreases soil erosion
  114. Acid rain contamination in New England is blamed primarily on
    midwestern coal-burning power stations and industries
  115. Fresh water accounts for approximately what percentage of water available?
    less than 1%
  116. Acid rain has not been linked to
    the depletion of the earth's ozone layer
  117. What percentage of municipal solid wast is disposed of in landfills?
  118. An example of a high-level hazardous wast is..
    spent nuclear power reactor fuel
  119. What is not correct about solid waste?
    In North America, the average person produces six pounds of waste per day
  120. Acid rain has the greatest potential for damage to surface water in the US in..
    New England
  121. What is not correct about global warming?
    the seven warmest years between 1880 and 1991 occurred before 1945
  122. Global warming and climatic change would most adversely affect..
    developing countries highly dependent on agriculture
  123. The removal of tropical forests is not related to this global concern?
    their ability to absorb the chemiclas that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer
  124. The combination of decreasing yields, increased stream sediment loads and the downstream deposition of silt on a global basis is evidence of
    soil erosion
  125. On a global basis, the areas with wht highest moisture deficits are..
    North Africa, the Middle East, Austrailia, and the southwestern US