Card Set Information
Meiosis is the process of cell division that occurs in _.
Gametogenesis is the formation of _.
Gametes are _.
Term for reproductive cells is _.
Object of mitosis is to obtain _.
two diploid daughter cells
Meisosis leads to production for _ haploid cells.
Zygote is the _.
Term for fertilized egg is _.
Bivalent is the cell has _ of each chromosome.
Term for when a cell has two copies of each chromosome is _.
Each pair of homologous chromsomes form a _.
Tetrad is formed when _ come together.
First meiotic division separates tetrads so each daughter cell gets 2 copies of _.
one of the two homologous chromosomes
First meiotic division separates the _ so that each daughter cell gets 2 copies of one of the two homologous chromosomes.
Tetrads are separated and each daughter cell gets 2 copies of one of the two homologous chromosomes in the _ meiotic division.
Second meiotic division divides each bivalent between the _.
two daughter cells
Second meiotic division divides _ between the two daughter cells.
Each bivalnet is divided between two daughter cells in _ meiotic division.
End result of the two meiotic divisions is _.
four daughter cells
Most genes exist in multiple, slightly different froms called _.
Alleles are _ forms of most genes.
multiple, slightly different
Term for identical twins is _.
Spermatogenesis is the process of meiosis in the _.
Process of meiosis in male gonads is _.
Oogenesis is the process of meiosis in _.
Process of meiosis in female gonads is _.
Spermatid is a haploid cell that will become a _.
Spermatid is a _ that will become a functional gamete.
Haploid cell that will become a functional gamete is a _.
First meiotic division in oogenesis results in a _ and first polar body.
In first meiotic division, secondary oocyte receives _.
almost all of the cytoplasm
In first meiotic division _ receives almost all of the cytoplasm.
First meiotic division in oogenesis results in a secondary oocyte and a _.
first polar body
In first meiotic division first polar body receives no _ and has no future as a gamete.
In first meiotic division, first polar body receives no cytoplasm and has _.
no future as a gamete
Secondary oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division resulting in _ and a second polar body.
Secondary oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division resulting in an ovum and a _.
second polar body
Process of the ovary starts with a _ cell and ends with a _ cell.
Process in the testis results in _ of equal competence.
Primary oocytes are enclosed in a small chamber called a _.
Epididymis is a highly coiled tube that lies posterior to each testis and continues into a _.
Epididymis is a highly coiled tube that lies posterior to _ and continues into a straight tube.
Highly coiled tube that lies posterior to each testis and continues into a straight tube is the _.
Vas deferens leads from the scrotum through the inguinal canal into the _.
Vas deferens leads from the scrotum through the _ into the pelvic cavity.
Vas deferens leads from the _ through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity.
Leading from the scrotum through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity is the _.
Vas deferens is joined by a duct from the _.
Seminal vesicle secretes _.
At the point of entry of the duct from the seminal vesicle, the vas deferens join to form the _.
At the point of entry of the duct from the seminal vesicle, the _ join to form the ejaculatory duct.
Ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and becomes the prostatic portion of the _.
Ejaculatory duct passes through the _ and becomes the prostatic portionof the urethra.
Duct that passes through the prostate gland and becomes the prostatic portion of the urethra is the _.
At the base of the penis is the paired _.
Bulbourethral glands are located at the _.
base of the penis
Chief function of the epididymis is as a site of _.
Sperm maturation takes place in the _.
Mature sperm are stored in the _.
Cremaster muscle elevates testes during _ and _.
Testes are elevated during cold exposure and sexual arousal by the _.
Scrotal cavity and abdominal cavity are connected by the _.
Inguinal canals connect the _ and _ cavities.
Body of the penis consists of two dorsal corpora cavernosa and the _.
ventral corpora spongiosum
Body of the penis consists of two _ and teh ventral corpus spongiosum.
dorsal corpora cavernosa
Corpus spongiosum forms the _ of the penis at its base.
Corpus spongiosum forms the _ at the head of the penis.
Bulb of the penis is formed by the _.
Glans penis is formed by the _.
Corpora cavernosa expands at the base of the penis to form the _.
Penile crus is formed by the _.
During sexual arousal the parasympathetic nerves release the gaseous neurotransmitter _.
During sexual arousal the _ nerves release the gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide.
Ischiocavernosus muscles located at the base of penis cause _.
Bulbocavernosus muscles at the base of the penis cause _.
Muscles at the base of the penis that cause ejaculation are the ischiocavernosus muscles and the _ muscles.
Muscles at the base of the penis that cause ejaculation are _ muscles and bulbocavernosus muscles.
Seminiferous tubules are interconnected tubules that comprise the _.
Seminiferous tubules carry spermatozoa to the _.
Many interconnected tubules that comprise the testis are the _.
Tubules that carry spermatozoa is carried to the epididymis by the _.
Sertoli cells line the _.
Seminiferous tubules are lined with _.
Sertoli cells support the developing _.
Developing gametes are supported by _ cells.
In spermiogenesis, each spermatid loses almost all of its cytoplasm and acquires a _.
In spermiogenesis, each spermatid loses _ and acquires a flagellar tail.
almost all of its cytoplasm
Spermatid has a midpiece with mitochondria that fuel the tail with _.
Spermatid has a midpiece with _ that fuel the tail with ATP.
Part of the spermatid that has mitochondria that fuels the tail with ATP is the _.
Spermatid head contains the _.
Spermatid head is surmounted with a _.
Acrosome projects from the _.
head of the spermatid
Acrosome contains enzymes that allows the sperm nucleus to _.
enter the ovum in fertilization
Enzyme that allows the sperm nucleus to enter to the ovum in fertilization is _.
Cells that surround the seminiferous tubules are called _.
Leydig cells surround the _.
Leydig cells secrete _.
Testosterone is secreted by _ cells.
Development and function of testes are controlled by the two gonadotropins _ and _.
Chief function of LH is to stimulate Leydig cells to secrete _.
Chief function of LH is to stimulate the _ to secrete testosterone.
Gonadotropin that stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone is _.
Chief functionof FSH is to stimulate seminiferous tubules to produce _.
Chief function of FSH is to stimulate _ to produce spermatozoa.
Gonadotropin that stimulates seminiferous tubules to produce spermatozoa is _.
Secretion of LH and FSH is driven by _.
gonadotropin releasing factor (GRF)
Gonadotropin releasing factor (GRF) drives the secretion of _ and _.
Testosterone feed back on the adenohypophysis inhibits _ secretion.
Sertoli cells release a protein hormone called _.
Inhibin is released by _.
Inhibin provides negative feedback for _ release.
Opening of the Fallopian tube is termed _.
Infundibulum is the _.
opening of the Fallopian tube
Infundibulum is surrounded with fimbriae that radiate around the _.
Infundibulum is surrounded with _ that radiate around the ovary.
Function of the Fallopian tubes is to _.
capture ovulated ova.
Broad ligaments attach the uterus and the Fallopian tubes to either side of the _.
Broad ligaments attach the uterus and _ to either side of the pelvic cavity.
Broad ligaments attach the _ and Fallopian tubes the either side of the pelvic cavity.
Uterus and Fallopian tubes are attached to the pelvic cavity by the _.
Uterosacral ligaments connect the uterus to the _.
Uterosacral ligaments attach the _ to the sacrum.
Uterus is connected to the sacrum by the _.
Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the cervix and vagina to the _.
Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the cervix and _ to the pelvic wall.
Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the _ and vagina to the pelvic wall.
Cervix and vagina are connected to the pelvic wall by the _.
lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments
Round ligaments reinforce the _.
Broad ligament is reinforced by _.
Position of ovaries relative to the uterus and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the _.
Position of the ovaries relative to the uterus and _ is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
Position of the ovaries relative to the _ and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
Position of _ relative to the uterus and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
Mesovarium attaches the ovary to the _.
Mesovarium attaches the _ to the broad ligament.
Ovary is attached to the broad ligament by the _.
Uterus is lined with _.
Uterine endometrium is composed of the stratum basalis and the _.
Uterine endometrium is composed of the _ and the stratum functionalis.
Stratum basalis of the uterus is the regenerative part of the _.
Stratum basale of the uterus is the _ part of the mucosa.
Regenerative part of the mucosa in the uterus is the _.
Stratum functionalis is the superficial layer that is _.
shed in menstruation
Stratum functionalis is the _ layer that is shed in menstruation.
Superficial layer of the uterus that is shed in menstruation is the _.
Uterine myometrium is composed of _ muscle.
Lining of the uterus that is composed of smooth muscle is the _.
Outer layer of the uterus lining is the _.
Perimetrium is the _ layer of the uterine lining.
Perimetrium is an extension of the _.
Part of the uterine lining that is an extension of the parietal peritoneum is the _.
Mucosa of the vagina contains large amounts of _.
Term vulva designates the _.
female external genitalia
Term for external female genitalia is _.
Mons pubis is a fatty elevation situated over the _.
Fatty elevation situated over the pubic symphysis is the _.
Greater vestibular glands are also the _.
Bartholin's glands are the paired _.
greater vestibular glands
Bartholin's glands secrete _.
lubricating fluid during sexual excitement
During sexual excitement, _ secretes lubricating fluid.
Ovary is surrounded by _ epithelium.
Internal to the germinal epithelium of the ovary is the _.
Tunica albuginea is the _ layer to the germinal epithelium of the ovary.
Tunica albuginea is a capsule of _.
Mass of the ovary is composed of a meshwork of _.
In the outer stroma are _ in various stages of maturation.
Ovarian follicles in various stages of maturation is located in the _.
Innermost structure surrounding the primary oocyte is the _.
Zona pellucida is the innermost layer surrounding the _.
Zona pellucida is the _ structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
Middle layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte is the _.
Granulosa cells is the _ layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
Outer layer of the structure that surrounds the primary oocyte is the _.
Theca cells are the _ layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
Theca cells are homologus to the _ cells of the testes.
Homologous to the Leydig cells of the testes are the _ of the ovary.
Theca cells convert cholesterol to _.
Theca cells convert _ to androgen.
In the ovary, _ converts cholesterol to androgen.
Androgen passes to granulosa cells, which converts the androgen to _.
Androgen passes to _, which converts the androgen to estrogen.
Major form of estrogen secreted by maturing follicles is _.
Estradiol is the major form of _ secreted by maturing follicles.
During menstruation levels of estradiol and progesterone are _.
During menstruation levels of FSH are _ and LH are _.
During menstruation levels of _ are high and _ are low.
FSH stimulates a dozen or so primary follicles to begin _.
FSH stimulates a dozen or so _ to begin maturation.
Primary follicles are stimulated to begin to mature by _.
Primary follicle that has reached maturity and is ready for ovulation is a _.
Graafian follicle is a primary follicle that has reached full maturity and is ready for _.
Graafian follicle is a primary follicle that has _ and is ready for ovulation.
reached full maturity
Graafian follicle is a _ that has reached full maturity and is ready for ovulation.
Primary follicles that do not mature undergo _.
First part of the menstrual cycle is called the _ phase.
Proliferative phase is the _ part of the menstrual cycle.
Spike of LH causes mature Graafian follicles to rupture and release _.
its primary oocyte
Spike of LH causes the mature Graafian follicle to _ and release its primary oocyte.
Spike of LH causes_ to rupture and release its primary oocyte.
Mature Graafian follicle ruptures and releases its primary oocyte due to a _.
spike in LH
After ovulation, remnant of the ovarian follicle transforms into a _.
Corpus luteum is transformed from the _.
remnants of the ovarian follicle
Corpus luteum secretes estradiol and _.
Corpus luteum secretes the _ and progesterone.
In an infertile cycle the corpus luteum terminates and becomes a _.
Corpus albicans is from the termination of the _.
Pregnancy ends with the process of _.
Parturition is the process of the _.
end of pregnancy
Surrounding the zona pellucida are follicular cells that compose the _.
Corona radiata surrounds the _.
Capacitation makes it possible for spermatozoa to _.
fertilze an ovum
Process that makes it possible for spermatozoa to fertilize an ovum is _.
Immediately after fertilization the zygote forms a ball of cells called a _.
Morula is a ball of cells formed by the zygote after _.
Morula is a ball of cells formed by the _ immediately after fertilization.
Morula is a _ formed by the zygote immediately after fertilization.
ball of cells
While the zygote is free in the uterus is forms a hollow ball of several hundred cells called a _.
Blastocyst is formed by the zygote that is _.
free in the uterus
Blastocyst is formed by the _ that is free in the uterus.
Blastocyst is in the form of a hollow ball made of _.
several hundred cells
Blastocyst is a form of a _ made of several hundred cells.
Blastocyst will become the _.
Outer cells of the blastocyst become the _.
Trophoblast is the _ cells of the blastocyst.
First priority for the blastocyst is to _.
implant in the uterine endometrium
At the first step of implantation, the cells of the trophoblast _.
separate into an outer and inner layer
Inner layer of the trophoblast is called the _.
Cytotrophoblast is the _ of the trophoblast.
Cytotrophoblat is composed of cells that _.
retain their cytoplasm
Part of the trophoblast that retains their cytoplasm is the _.
Outer layer of the trophoblast is the _.
Syncytiotrophoblast is the _ layer of the trophoblast.
In the syncitiotrophoblast, the cells merge to form a mass of cytoplasm with _.
Part of the trophoblast that merges to form a mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei is the _.
Syncytiotrophoblast sends out fingers into the _.
Fingers are sent out into the endometrium by the _.
Syncytiotrophoblast fingers secrete enzymes that _.
dissolve endometrial cells
Syncytiotrophoblast is a barrier between the _ and the _.
Syncytiotrophoblast is a _ between the embryo and the mother.
Barrier between the embryo and the mother is the _.
After implantation, syncytiotrophoblast secretes _.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
After implantation, _ secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a signal to the corpus luteum to _.
continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone after the 25-day cycle
Signal to the corpus luteum to continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone after the 25-day cycle is the secretion of _.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Estrogen and progesterone are secreted for the _ trimester of pregnancy.
Two fetal membranes that enclose and protect the embryo are the amnion and the _.
Two fetal membranes that enclose and protect the embryo are the _ and the chorion.
Amnion encloses _.
Amniotic fluid is enclosed by the _.
Chorion forms fetal component of _.
Placenta is formed by the _.
Progesterone _ the uterine smooth muscle.
Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates breast development, fetal bone growth, and _.
maternal lipid metabolism
Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates breast development, _, and maternal lipid metabolism.
fetal bone growth
Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates _, fetal bone growth, and maternal lipid metabolism.
Breast development is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
Fetal bone growth is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
Maternal lipid metabolism is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
Relaxin is initially secreted by the corpus luteum and later by the _.
Relaxin is initially secreted by the _ and later by the placenta.
Relaxin softens the _ and _.
Cervix and uterus is softened by the placental hormone _.
Relaxin softens the connective tissue between the bones of the _.
Connective tissue between the bones of the pelvic girdle are softened by the placental hormone _.
Trophoblast arranged into an embryonic disk consists of a layer of _ and a layer of _.
Epiblast and hypoblast are layers of the trophoblast that has arranged itself into _.
an embryonic disk
Embryonic disk lies between the _ and the _.
Epiblast faces the _ of the embryonic disk.
Amnion of the embryonic disk is faced by the _.
Hypoblast faces the _ of the embryonic disk.
Yolk sac of the embryonic disk is faced by the _.
Gastrulation is the migration of some cells of the epiblast layer into the space _.
between the epiblast and hypoblast
Some cells of the epiblast detach and migrate to a space between the epiblast and hypoblast is a process called _.
Gastrulation establishes three _.
primary germ layers
Primary germ layer: outer ectoderm was originally the _.
Primary germ layer: the _ was originally the epiblast.
Primary germ layer: inner endoderm was originally the _.
Primary germ layer: the _ was originally the hypoblast.
Primary germ layer: the intermediate _.
Notochord becomes the _ of the embryonic disk.
Cephalic-caudal axis of the embryonic disks develops from the _.
Notochord induces the formation of a raised _ of ectodermal cells.
Neural plate is formed from the _.
Neural plate closes over to form the _.
Neural tube is formed by the closing over of the _.
Neural tube is the precursor of the _.
Precursor of the nervous system is the _.
Mesodermm adjacent to the neural tube divides into a series of blocks called _.
Somites are a series of blocks derived from the division of the _.
Brachial (pharyngeal) arches differntiate the structures of the _.
Structures of the ear are differentiate from _.
brachial (pharyngeal) arches
Fetus is connected to the placenta by the _.
Fetus is connectedto the _ by the umbilical cord.
Umbilical vein connects to the _ circulation of the fetus.
Hepatic circulation of the fetus is connected by the _.
Ductus venosus bypasses the _ circulation.
Hepatic circulation is bypassed by the _.
Ductus venosus allows blood flow along the umbilical vein to go directly to the _.
Output of the fetal right heart is directed into _.
two vascular shunts
Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart allows the output of the right heart to _.
bypass the lungs
Output of the fetal right heart bypasses the lungs by _.
two vascular shunts
Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart are the foramen ovale and the _.
Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart are the _ and the ductus arteriosus.
Foramen ovale is between the _ and _ of the fetal heart.
left and right atria
Ductus arteriosus is between the _ and _ of the fetal heart.
Vascular shunt between the left and right atria of the fetal heart is the _.
Vascular shunt between the pulmonary artery and aorta of the fetal heart is the _.
Two umbilical arteries connect to the fetal systemic loop as branches of the _.
Two umbilical arteries connect the _ as branches of the iliac arteries.
fetal systemic loop
Fetal Hb consists of _ and _ subunits.
Removal of the placenta shuts off most blood flow through the _.
Removal of the _ shuts off most blood flow through the ductus venosus.
Ductus venosus closes within _ of birth.
Inflation of the lungs at birth causes the flow resistance of the pulmonary loop to drop below that of the _.
Inflation of the lungs at birth causes the flow resistance of the pulmonary loop to _ that of the systemic loop.
Flow resistance of the pulmonary loop drops below that of the systemic loop due to the _ at birth.
inflation of lungs
As a result of inflation of the lungs at birth, blood flow through the foramen ovale _.
As a result of inflation of the lungs at birth, blood flow through the _ reverses.
Blood flow through the foramen ovale reverses due to the _ at birth.
inflation of the lungs
After birth the ductus arteriosus first constricts, and then _.
After birth, ductus arteriosus first _, and then closes permanently.
Ductus arteriosus forms a ligament-like remnant called the _.
Ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of the _.
Ligamentum arteriosum forms within _ after birth.
a few days
First (dilation) stage of true labor begins with the _.
onset of regular uterine contractions.
Stage of true labor that begins with the onset of regular uterine contractions is the _.
first (dilation) stage
Second (expulsion) stage of labor begins when the _.
cervix is completely dilated
Stage of labor that begins when the cervix is completely dilated is the _.
second (expulsion) stage
Second (expulsion) stage lasts until _.
the baby passes through the birth canal
Stage that ends when the baby passes through the birth canal is the _.
second (expulsion) stage
Third (placental) stage of labor is _.
delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes
Stage of labor when placenta and fetal membranes are delivered is _.
third (placental) stage
Mesonephric ducts are potential _ structures.
Potential male structures are _.
Paramesoneprhic ducts are potential _ structures.
Potential female structures are _.
Presence of the _ carried by the Y chromosome steers the primitive gonad in the direction of becoming a testis.
testicular determining gene
Individual who lack one X chromosome develop a female body plan, but their ovaries _.
do not mature
Individuals who develop a female body plan, but their ovaries do not develop lack _.
one X chromosome
Individuals who lack one X chromosome are _ sex genotype.
XO sex genotype are individuals who _.
lack one X chromosome
XO sex genotype is _.
Turner's syndrome is _ sex genotype.
Individual who have the XXY sex genotyp have a female body plan, but _.
testicular function is impaired
Individuals who have a male body plan but testicular function is impaired have the _ sex genotype.
XXY sex genotype is _.
Klinefelter's syndromem is _ sex genotype.
Internal male accessory structure is the _ system.
Wolffian system is the internal _ accessory structure.
Internal female structure is the _.
Mullerian system is the internal _ accessory structure.
Testosterone stimulates the differentiaton of the _ system.
Wolffian system differentiation is stimulated by _.
Mullerian-inhibiting factor causes the _ of the Mullerian system.
Deterioration of the Mullerian system is caused by _.