Reproduction

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MarlieHopkins
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120680
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Reproduction
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2011-12-04 19:06:50
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Reproduction
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Reproduction
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  1. Meiosis is the process of cell division that occurs in _.
    gametogenesis
  2. Gametogenesis is the formation of _.
    gametes
  3. Gametes are _.
    reproductive cells
  4. Term for reproductive cells is _.
    gametes
  5. Object of mitosis is to obtain _.
    two diploid daughter cells
  6. Meisosis leads to production for _ haploid cells.
    four
  7. Zygote is the _.
    fertilized egg
  8. Term for fertilized egg is _.
    zygote
  9. Bivalent is the cell has _ of each chromosome.
    two copies
  10. Term for when a cell has two copies of each chromosome is _.
    bivalent
  11. Each pair of homologous chromsomes form a _.
    tetrad
  12. Tetrad is formed when _ come together.
    homologous chromosomes
  13. First meiotic division separates tetrads so each daughter cell gets 2 copies of _.
    one of the two homologous chromosomes
  14. First meiotic division separates the _ so that each daughter cell gets 2 copies of one of the two homologous chromosomes.
    tetrad
  15. Tetrads are separated and each daughter cell gets 2 copies of one of the two homologous chromosomes in the _ meiotic division.
    first
  16. Second meiotic division divides each bivalent between the _.
    two daughter cells
  17. Second meiotic division divides _ between the two daughter cells.
    each bivalent
  18. Each bivalnet is divided between two daughter cells in _ meiotic division.
    second
  19. End result of the two meiotic divisions is _.
    four daughter cells
  20. Most genes exist in multiple, slightly different froms called _.
    alleles
  21. Alleles are _ forms of most genes.
    multiple, slightly different
  22. Term for identical twins is _.
    monozygotic
  23. Spermatogenesis is the process of meiosis in the _.
    male gonads
  24. Process of meiosis in male gonads is _.
    spermatogenesis
  25. Oogenesis is the process of meiosis in _.
    female gonads
  26. Process of meiosis in female gonads is _.
    oogenesis
  27. Spermatid is a haploid cell that will become a _.
    functional gamete
  28. Spermatid is a _ that will become a functional gamete.
    haploid
  29. Haploid cell that will become a functional gamete is a _.
    spermatid
  30. First meiotic division in oogenesis results in a _ and first polar body.
    secondary oocyte
  31. In first meiotic division, secondary oocyte receives _.
    almost all of the cytoplasm
  32. In first meiotic division _ receives almost all of the cytoplasm.
    secondary oocyte
  33. First meiotic division in oogenesis results in a secondary oocyte and a _.
    first polar body
  34. In first meiotic division first polar body receives no _ and has no future as a gamete.
    cytoplasm
  35. In first meiotic division, first polar body receives no cytoplasm and has _.
    no future as a gamete
  36. Secondary oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division resulting in _ and a second polar body.
    an ovum
  37. Secondary oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division resulting in an ovum and a _.
    second polar body
  38. Process of the ovary starts with a _ cell and ends with a _ cell.
    • *diploid
    • *single haploid
  39. Process in the testis results in _ of equal competence.
    four cells
  40. Primary oocytes are enclosed in a small chamber called a _.
    primary follicle
  41. Epididymis is a highly coiled tube that lies posterior to each testis and continues into a _.
    straight tube
  42. Epididymis is a highly coiled tube that lies posterior to _ and continues into a straight tube.
    each testis
  43. Highly coiled tube that lies posterior to each testis and continues into a straight tube is the _.
    epididymis
  44. Vas deferens leads from the scrotum through the inguinal canal into the _.
    pelvic cavity
  45. Vas deferens leads from the scrotum through the _ into the pelvic cavity.
    inguinal canal
  46. Vas deferens leads from the _ through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity.
    scrotum
  47. Leading from the scrotum through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity is the _.
    vas deferens
  48. Vas deferens is joined by a duct from the _.
    seminal vesicle
  49. Seminal vesicle secretes _.
    mucoid material
  50. At the point of entry of the duct from the seminal vesicle, the vas deferens join to form the _.
    ejaculatory duct
  51. At the point of entry of the duct from the seminal vesicle, the _ join to form the ejaculatory duct.
    vas deferentia
  52. Ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and becomes the prostatic portion of the _.
    urethra
  53. Ejaculatory duct passes through the _ and becomes the prostatic portionof the urethra.
    prostate gland
  54. Duct that passes through the prostate gland and becomes the prostatic portion of the urethra is the _.
    ejaculatory duct
  55. At the base of the penis is the paired _.
    bulbourethral glands
  56. Bulbourethral glands are located at the _.
    base of the penis
  57. Chief function of the epididymis is as a site of _.
    sperm maturation
  58. Sperm maturation takes place in the _.
    epididymis
  59. Mature sperm are stored in the _.
    vas deferens
  60. Cremaster muscle elevates testes during _ and _.
    • *cold exposure
    • *sexual arousal
  61. Testes are elevated during cold exposure and sexual arousal by the _.
    cremaster muscle
  62. Scrotal cavity and abdominal cavity are connected by the _.
    inguinal canals
  63. Inguinal canals connect the _ and _ cavities.
    • *scrotal
    • *abdominal
  64. Body of the penis consists of two dorsal corpora cavernosa and the _.
    ventral corpora spongiosum
  65. Body of the penis consists of two _ and teh ventral corpus spongiosum.
    dorsal corpora cavernosa
  66. Corpus spongiosum forms the _ of the penis at its base.
    bulb
  67. Corpus spongiosum forms the _ at the head of the penis.
    glans penis
  68. Bulb of the penis is formed by the _.
    corpus spongiosum
  69. Glans penis is formed by the _.
    corpus spongiosum
  70. Corpora cavernosa expands at the base of the penis to form the _.
    penile crus
  71. Penile crus is formed by the _.
    corpora cavernosa
  72. During sexual arousal the parasympathetic nerves release the gaseous neurotransmitter _.
    nitric oxide
  73. During sexual arousal the _ nerves release the gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide.
    parasympathetic
  74. Ischiocavernosus muscles located at the base of penis cause _.
    ejaculation
  75. Bulbocavernosus muscles at the base of the penis cause _.
    ejaculation
  76. Muscles at the base of the penis that cause ejaculation are the ischiocavernosus muscles and the _ muscles.
    bulbocavernosus
  77. Muscles at the base of the penis that cause ejaculation are _ muscles and bulbocavernosus muscles.
    ischiocavernosus
  78. Seminiferous tubules are interconnected tubules that comprise the _.
    testis
  79. Seminiferous tubules carry spermatozoa to the _.
    epididymis
  80. Many interconnected tubules that comprise the testis are the _.
    seminiferous tubules
  81. Tubules that carry spermatozoa is carried to the epididymis by the _.
    seminiferous tubules
  82. Sertoli cells line the _.
    seminiferous tubules
  83. Seminiferous tubules are lined with _.
    Sertoli cells
  84. Sertoli cells support the developing _.
    gametes
  85. Developing gametes are supported by _ cells.
    Sertoli
  86. In spermiogenesis, each spermatid loses almost all of its cytoplasm and acquires a _.
    flagellar tail
  87. In spermiogenesis, each spermatid loses _ and acquires a flagellar tail.
    almost all of its cytoplasm
  88. Spermatid has a midpiece with mitochondria that fuel the tail with _.
    ATP
  89. Spermatid has a midpiece with _ that fuel the tail with ATP.
    mitochondria
  90. Part of the spermatid that has mitochondria that fuels the tail with ATP is the _.
    midpiece
  91. Spermatid head contains the _.
    nucleus
  92. Spermatid head is surmounted with a _.
    acrosome
  93. Acrosome projects from the _.
    head of the spermatid
  94. Acrosome contains enzymes that allows the sperm nucleus to _.
    enter the ovum in fertilization
  95. Enzyme that allows the sperm nucleus to enter to the ovum in fertilization is _.
    acrosome
  96. Cells that surround the seminiferous tubules are called _.
    Leydig cells
  97. Leydig cells surround the _.
    seminiferous tubules
  98. Leydig cells secrete _.
    testosterone
  99. Testosterone is secreted by _ cells.
    Leydig
  100. Development and function of testes are controlled by the two gonadotropins _ and _.
    • *LH
    • *FSH
  101. Chief function of LH is to stimulate Leydig cells to secrete _.
    testerone
  102. Chief function of LH is to stimulate the _ to secrete testosterone.
    Leydig cells
  103. Gonadotropin that stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone is _.
    LH
  104. Chief functionof FSH is to stimulate seminiferous tubules to produce _.
    spermatozoa
  105. Chief function of FSH is to stimulate _ to produce spermatozoa.
    seminiferous tubules
  106. Gonadotropin that stimulates seminiferous tubules to produce spermatozoa is _.
    FSH
  107. Secretion of LH and FSH is driven by _.
    gonadotropin releasing factor (GRF)
  108. Gonadotropin releasing factor (GRF) drives the secretion of _ and _.
    • *LH
    • *FSH
  109. Testosterone feed back on the adenohypophysis inhibits _ secretion.
    LH
  110. Sertoli cells release a protein hormone called _.
    inhibin
  111. Inhibin is released by _.
    Sertoli cells
  112. Inhibin provides negative feedback for _ release.
    FSH
  113. Opening of the Fallopian tube is termed _.
    infundibulum
  114. Infundibulum is the _.
    opening of the Fallopian tube
  115. Infundibulum is surrounded with fimbriae that radiate around the _.
    ovary
  116. Infundibulum is surrounded with _ that radiate around the ovary.
    fimbriae
  117. Function of the Fallopian tubes is to _.
    capture ovulated ova.
  118. Broad ligaments attach the uterus and the Fallopian tubes to either side of the _.
    pelvic cavity
  119. Broad ligaments attach the uterus and _ to either side of the pelvic cavity.
    Fallopian tubes
  120. Broad ligaments attach the _ and Fallopian tubes the either side of the pelvic cavity.
    uterus
  121. Uterus and Fallopian tubes are attached to the pelvic cavity by the _.
    broad ligaments
  122. Uterosacral ligaments connect the uterus to the _.
    sacrum
  123. Uterosacral ligaments attach the _ to the sacrum.
    uterus
  124. Uterus is connected to the sacrum by the _.
    uterosacral ligaments
  125. Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the cervix and vagina to the _.
    pelvic wall
  126. Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the cervix and _ to the pelvic wall.
    vagina
  127. Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments connect the _ and vagina to the pelvic wall.
    cervix
  128. Cervix and vagina are connected to the pelvic wall by the _.
    lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments
  129. Round ligaments reinforce the _.
    broad ligament
  130. Broad ligament is reinforced by _.
    round ligaments
  131. Position of ovaries relative to the uterus and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the _.
    ovarian ligaments
  132. Position of the ovaries relative to the uterus and _ is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
    Fallopian tubes
  133. Position of the ovaries relative to the _ and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
    uterus
  134. Position of _ relative to the uterus and Fallopian tubules is maintained by the ovarian ligaments.
    ovaries
  135. Mesovarium attaches the ovary to the _.
    broad ligament
  136. Mesovarium attaches the _ to the broad ligament.
    ovary
  137. Ovary is attached to the broad ligament by the _.
    mesovarium
  138. Uterus is lined with _.
    endometrium
  139. Uterine endometrium is composed of the stratum basalis and the _.
    stratum functionalis
  140. Uterine endometrium is composed of the _ and the stratum functionalis.
    stratum basalis
  141. Stratum basalis of the uterus is the regenerative part of the _.
    mucosa
  142. Stratum basale of the uterus is the _ part of the mucosa.
    regenerative
  143. Regenerative part of the mucosa in the uterus is the _.
    stratum basalis
  144. Stratum functionalis is the superficial layer that is _.
    shed in menstruation
  145. Stratum functionalis is the _ layer that is shed in menstruation.
    superficial
  146. Superficial layer of the uterus that is shed in menstruation is the _.
    stratum functionalis
  147. Uterine myometrium is composed of _ muscle.
    smooth
  148. Lining of the uterus that is composed of smooth muscle is the _.
    myometrium
  149. Outer layer of the uterus lining is the _.
    perimetrium
  150. Perimetrium is the _ layer of the uterine lining.
    outer
  151. Perimetrium is an extension of the _.
    parietal peritoneum
  152. Part of the uterine lining that is an extension of the parietal peritoneum is the _.
    perimetrium
  153. Mucosa of the vagina contains large amounts of _.
    glycogen
  154. Term vulva designates the _.
    female external genitalia
  155. Term for external female genitalia is _.
    vulva
  156. Mons pubis is a fatty elevation situated over the _.
    pubic symphysis
  157. Fatty elevation situated over the pubic symphysis is the _.
    mons pubis
  158. Greater vestibular glands are also the _.
    Bartholin's glands
  159. Bartholin's glands are the paired _.
    greater vestibular glands
  160. Bartholin's glands secrete _.
    lubricating fluid during sexual excitement
  161. During sexual excitement, _ secretes lubricating fluid.
    Bartholin's glands
  162. Ovary is surrounded by _ epithelium.
    cuboidal germinal
  163. Internal to the germinal epithelium of the ovary is the _.
    tunica albuginea
  164. Tunica albuginea is the _ layer to the germinal epithelium of the ovary.
    internal
  165. Tunica albuginea is a capsule of _.
    connective tissue
  166. Mass of the ovary is composed of a meshwork of _.
    stroma
  167. In the outer stroma are _ in various stages of maturation.
    ovarian follicles
  168. Ovarian follicles in various stages of maturation is located in the _.
    outer stroma
  169. Innermost structure surrounding the primary oocyte is the _.
    zona pellucida
  170. Zona pellucida is the innermost layer surrounding the _.
    primary oocyte
  171. Zona pellucida is the _ structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
    inner
  172. Middle layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte is the _.
    granulosa cells
  173. Granulosa cells is the _ layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
    middle
  174. Outer layer of the structure that surrounds the primary oocyte is the _.
    theca cells
  175. Theca cells are the _ layer of the structure surrounding the primary oocyte.
    outer
  176. Theca cells are homologus to the _ cells of the testes.
    Leydig
  177. Homologous to the Leydig cells of the testes are the _ of the ovary.
    theca cells
  178. Theca cells convert cholesterol to _.
    androgen
  179. Theca cells convert _ to androgen.
    cholesterol
  180. In the ovary, _ converts cholesterol to androgen.
    theca cells
  181. Androgen passes to granulosa cells, which converts the androgen to _.
    estrogen
  182. Androgen passes to _, which converts the androgen to estrogen.
    granulosa cells
  183. Major form of estrogen secreted by maturing follicles is _.
    estradiol
  184. Estradiol is the major form of _ secreted by maturing follicles.
    estrogen
  185. During menstruation levels of estradiol and progesterone are _.
    low
  186. During menstruation levels of FSH are _ and LH are _.
    • *high
    • *low
  187. During menstruation levels of _ are high and _ are low.
    • *FSH
    • *LH
  188. FSH stimulates a dozen or so primary follicles to begin _.
    maturation
  189. FSH stimulates a dozen or so _ to begin maturation.
    primary follicles
  190. Primary follicles are stimulated to begin to mature by _.
    FSH
  191. Primary follicle that has reached maturity and is ready for ovulation is a _.
    Graafian follicle
  192. Graafian follicle is a primary follicle that has reached full maturity and is ready for _.
    ovulation
  193. Graafian follicle is a primary follicle that has _ and is ready for ovulation.
    reached full maturity
  194. Graafian follicle is a _ that has reached full maturity and is ready for ovulation.
    primary follicle
  195. Primary follicles that do not mature undergo _.
    atresia
  196. First part of the menstrual cycle is called the _ phase.
    proliferative
  197. Proliferative phase is the _ part of the menstrual cycle.
    first
  198. Spike of LH causes mature Graafian follicles to rupture and release _.
    its primary oocyte
  199. Spike of LH causes the mature Graafian follicle to _ and release its primary oocyte.
    rupture
  200. Spike of LH causes_ to rupture and release its primary oocyte.
    Graafian follicle
  201. Mature Graafian follicle ruptures and releases its primary oocyte due to a _.
    spike in LH
  202. After ovulation, remnant of the ovarian follicle transforms into a _.
    corpus luteum
  203. Corpus luteum is transformed from the _.
    remnants of the ovarian follicle
  204. Corpus luteum secretes estradiol and _.
    progesterone
  205. Corpus luteum secretes the _ and progesterone.
    estradiol
  206. In an infertile cycle the corpus luteum terminates and becomes a _.
    corpus albicans
  207. Corpus albicans is from the termination of the _.
    corpus luteum
  208. Pregnancy ends with the process of _.
    parturition
  209. Parturition is the process of the _.
    end of pregnancy
  210. Surrounding the zona pellucida are follicular cells that compose the _.
    corona radiata
  211. Corona radiata surrounds the _.
    zona pellucida
  212. Capacitation makes it possible for spermatozoa to _.
    fertilze an ovum
  213. Process that makes it possible for spermatozoa to fertilize an ovum is _.
    capacitation
  214. Immediately after fertilization the zygote forms a ball of cells called a _.
    morula
  215. Morula is a ball of cells formed by the zygote after _.
    fertilization
  216. Morula is a ball of cells formed by the _ immediately after fertilization.
    zygote
  217. Morula is a _ formed by the zygote immediately after fertilization.
    ball of cells
  218. While the zygote is free in the uterus is forms a hollow ball of several hundred cells called a _.
    blastocyst
  219. Blastocyst is formed by the zygote that is _.
    free in the uterus
  220. Blastocyst is formed by the _ that is free in the uterus.
    zygote
  221. Blastocyst is in the form of a hollow ball made of _.
    several hundred cells
  222. Blastocyst is a form of a _ made of several hundred cells.
    hollow ball
  223. Blastocyst will become the _.
    embryo
  224. Outer cells of the blastocyst become the _.
    trophoblast
  225. Trophoblast is the _ cells of the blastocyst.
    outer
  226. First priority for the blastocyst is to _.
    implant in the uterine endometrium
  227. At the first step of implantation, the cells of the trophoblast _.
    separate into an outer and inner layer
  228. Inner layer of the trophoblast is called the _.
    cytotrophoblast
  229. Cytotrophoblast is the _ of the trophoblast.
    inner
  230. Cytotrophoblat is composed of cells that _.
    retain their cytoplasm
  231. Part of the trophoblast that retains their cytoplasm is the _.
    cytotrophoblast
  232. Outer layer of the trophoblast is the _.
    syncytiotrophoblast
  233. Syncytiotrophoblast is the _ layer of the trophoblast.
    outer
  234. In the syncitiotrophoblast, the cells merge to form a mass of cytoplasm with _.
    many nuclei
  235. Part of the trophoblast that merges to form a mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei is the _.
    syncytiotrophoblast
  236. Syncytiotrophoblast sends out fingers into the _.
    endometrium
  237. Fingers are sent out into the endometrium by the _.
    syncytiotrophoblast
  238. Syncytiotrophoblast fingers secrete enzymes that _.
    dissolve endometrial cells
  239. Syncytiotrophoblast is a barrier between the _ and the _.
    • *embryo
    • *mother
  240. Syncytiotrophoblast is a _ between the embryo and the mother.
    barrier
  241. Barrier between the embryo and the mother is the _.
    syncyctiotrophoblast
  242. After implantation, syncytiotrophoblast secretes _.
    human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  243. After implantation, _ secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
    syncytiotrophoblast
  244. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a signal to the corpus luteum to _.
    continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone after the 25-day cycle
  245. Signal to the corpus luteum to continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone after the 25-day cycle is the secretion of _.
    human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  246. Estrogen and progesterone are secreted for the _ trimester of pregnancy.
    first
  247. Two fetal membranes that enclose and protect the embryo are the amnion and the _.
    chorion
  248. Two fetal membranes that enclose and protect the embryo are the _ and the chorion.
    amnion
  249. Amnion encloses _.
    amniotic fluid
  250. Amniotic fluid is enclosed by the _.
    amnion
  251. Chorion forms fetal component of _.
    placenta
  252. Placenta is formed by the _.
    chorion
  253. Progesterone _ the uterine smooth muscle.
    relaxes
  254. Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates breast development, fetal bone growth, and _.
    maternal lipid metabolism
  255. Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates breast development, _, and maternal lipid metabolism.
    fetal bone growth
  256. Chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen) stimulates _, fetal bone growth, and maternal lipid metabolism.
    breast development
  257. Breast development is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
    chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
  258. Fetal bone growth is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
    chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
  259. Maternal lipid metabolism is stimulated by the placental hormone _.
    chorionic somatomammotropin (fetal lactogen)
  260. Relaxin is initially secreted by the corpus luteum and later by the _.
    placenta
  261. Relaxin is initially secreted by the _ and later by the placenta.
    corpus luteum
  262. Relaxin softens the _ and _.
    • *cervix
    • *uterus
  263. Cervix and uterus is softened by the placental hormone _.
    relaxin
  264. Relaxin softens the connective tissue between the bones of the _.
    pelvic girdle
  265. Connective tissue between the bones of the pelvic girdle are softened by the placental hormone _.
    relaxin
  266. Trophoblast arranged into an embryonic disk consists of a layer of _ and a layer of _.
    • *epiblast
    • *hypoblast
  267. Epiblast and hypoblast are layers of the trophoblast that has arranged itself into _.
    an embryonic disk
  268. Embryonic disk lies between the _ and the _.
    • *amnion
    • *yolk sac
  269. Epiblast faces the _ of the embryonic disk.
    amnion
  270. Amnion of the embryonic disk is faced by the _.
    epiblast
  271. Hypoblast faces the _ of the embryonic disk.
    yolk sac
  272. Yolk sac of the embryonic disk is faced by the _.
    hypoblast
  273. Gastrulation is the migration of some cells of the epiblast layer into the space _.
    between the epiblast and hypoblast
  274. Some cells of the epiblast detach and migrate to a space between the epiblast and hypoblast is a process called _.
    gastrulation
  275. Gastrulation establishes three _.
    primary germ layers
  276. Primary germ layer: outer ectoderm was originally the _.
    epiblast
  277. Primary germ layer: the _ was originally the epiblast.
    outer ectoderm
  278. Primary germ layer: inner endoderm was originally the _.
    hypoblast
  279. Primary germ layer: the _ was originally the hypoblast.
    inner endoderm
  280. Primary germ layer: the intermediate _.
    mesoderm
  281. Notochord becomes the _ of the embryonic disk.
    cephalic-caudal axis
  282. Cephalic-caudal axis of the embryonic disks develops from the _.
    notochord
  283. Notochord induces the formation of a raised _ of ectodermal cells.
    neural plate
  284. Neural plate is formed from the _.
    notochord
  285. Neural plate closes over to form the _.
    neural tube
  286. Neural tube is formed by the closing over of the _.
    neural plate
  287. Neural tube is the precursor of the _.
    nervous system
  288. Precursor of the nervous system is the _.
    neural tube
  289. Mesodermm adjacent to the neural tube divides into a series of blocks called _.
    somites
  290. Somites are a series of blocks derived from the division of the _.
    neural tube
  291. Brachial (pharyngeal) arches differntiate the structures of the _.
    ear
  292. Structures of the ear are differentiate from _.
    brachial (pharyngeal) arches
  293. Fetus is connected to the placenta by the _.
    umbilical cord
  294. Fetus is connectedto the _ by the umbilical cord.
    placenta
  295. Umbilical vein connects to the _ circulation of the fetus.
    hepatic
  296. Hepatic circulation of the fetus is connected by the _.
    umbilical vein
  297. Ductus venosus bypasses the _ circulation.
    hepatic
  298. Hepatic circulation is bypassed by the _.
    ductus venosus
  299. Ductus venosus allows blood flow along the umbilical vein to go directly to the _.
    vena cava
  300. Output of the fetal right heart is directed into _.
    two vascular shunts
  301. Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart allows the output of the right heart to _.
    bypass the lungs
  302. Output of the fetal right heart bypasses the lungs by _.
    two vascular shunts
  303. Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart are the foramen ovale and the _.
    ductus arteriosus
  304. Two vascular shunts of the fetal heart are the _ and the ductus arteriosus.
    foramen ovale
  305. Foramen ovale is between the _ and _ of the fetal heart.
    left and right atria
  306. Ductus arteriosus is between the _ and _ of the fetal heart.
    • *pulmonary artery
    • *aorta
  307. Vascular shunt between the left and right atria of the fetal heart is the _.
    foramen ovale
  308. Vascular shunt between the pulmonary artery and aorta of the fetal heart is the _.
    ductus arteriosus
  309. Two umbilical arteries connect to the fetal systemic loop as branches of the _.
    iliac arteries
  310. Two umbilical arteries connect the _ as branches of the iliac arteries.
    fetal systemic loop
  311. Fetal Hb consists of _ and _ subunits.
    • *alpha
    • *gamma
  312. Removal of the placenta shuts off most blood flow through the _.
    ductus venosus
  313. Removal of the _ shuts off most blood flow through the ductus venosus.
    placenta
  314. Ductus venosus closes within _ of birth.
    three hours
  315. Inflation of the lungs at birth causes the flow resistance of the pulmonary loop to drop below that of the _.
    systemic loop
  316. Inflation of the lungs at birth causes the flow resistance of the pulmonary loop to _ that of the systemic loop.
    fall below
  317. Flow resistance of the pulmonary loop drops below that of the systemic loop due to the _ at birth.
    inflation of lungs
  318. As a result of inflation of the lungs at birth, blood flow through the foramen ovale _.
    reverses
  319. As a result of inflation of the lungs at birth, blood flow through the _ reverses.
    foramen ovale
  320. Blood flow through the foramen ovale reverses due to the _ at birth.
    inflation of the lungs
  321. After birth the ductus arteriosus first constricts, and then _.
    closes permanently
  322. After birth, ductus arteriosus first _, and then closes permanently.
    constricts
  323. Ductus arteriosus forms a ligament-like remnant called the _.
    ligamentum arteriosum
  324. Ligamentum arteriosum is a remnant of the _.
    ductus arteriosus
  325. Ligamentum arteriosum forms within _ after birth.
    a few days
  326. First (dilation) stage of true labor begins with the _.
    onset of regular uterine contractions.
  327. Stage of true labor that begins with the onset of regular uterine contractions is the _.
    first (dilation) stage
  328. Second (expulsion) stage of labor begins when the _.
    cervix is completely dilated
  329. Stage of labor that begins when the cervix is completely dilated is the _.
    second (expulsion) stage
  330. Second (expulsion) stage lasts until _.
    the baby passes through the birth canal
  331. Stage that ends when the baby passes through the birth canal is the _.
    second (expulsion) stage
  332. Third (placental) stage of labor is _.
    delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes
  333. Stage of labor when placenta and fetal membranes are delivered is _.
    third (placental) stage
  334. Mesonephric ducts are potential _ structures.
    male
  335. Potential male structures are _.
    mesonephric ducts
  336. Paramesoneprhic ducts are potential _ structures.
    female
  337. Potential female structures are _.
    paramesonephric ducts
  338. Presence of the _ carried by the Y chromosome steers the primitive gonad in the direction of becoming a testis.
    testicular determining gene
  339. Individual who lack one X chromosome develop a female body plan, but their ovaries _.
    do not mature
  340. Individuals who develop a female body plan, but their ovaries do not develop lack _.
    one X chromosome
  341. Individuals who lack one X chromosome are _ sex genotype.
    XO
  342. XO sex genotype are individuals who _.
    lack one X chromosome
  343. XO sex genotype is _.
    Turner's syndrome
  344. Turner's syndrome is _ sex genotype.
    XO
  345. Individual who have the XXY sex genotyp have a female body plan, but _.
    testicular function is impaired
  346. Individuals who have a male body plan but testicular function is impaired have the _ sex genotype.
    XXY
  347. XXY sex genotype is _.
    Klinefelter's syndrome
  348. Klinefelter's syndromem is _ sex genotype.
    XXY
  349. Internal male accessory structure is the _ system.
    Wolffian
  350. Wolffian system is the internal _ accessory structure.
    male
  351. Internal female structure is the _.
    Mullerian system
  352. Mullerian system is the internal _ accessory structure.
    female
  353. Testosterone stimulates the differentiaton of the _ system.
    Wolffian
  354. Wolffian system differentiation is stimulated by _.
    testosterone
  355. Mullerian-inhibiting factor causes the _ of the Mullerian system.
    deterioriation
  356. Deterioration of the Mullerian system is caused by _.
    Mullerian-inhibiting factor

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