Micro fall final

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jlolson83
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120683
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Micro fall final
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2011-12-04 23:48:07
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  1. Coagulase
    Staph
  2. Streptokinase
    (Fibrinolysin)

    Strep
  3. Hyaluronidase
    • Strep
    • Staph
    • Clostridia
  4. Hemolysins
    • Strep
    • Staph
    • Clostridia
  5. Lecithinase
    (Breaks down cell membranes)

    Clostridia
  6. Collagenase
    Clostridia
  7. Prokaryotic Ribosome
    30s+50s = 70s
  8. Gram positive cell wall components
    • Lipoteichoic acid
    • Peptidoglycan
    • Tetrapeptides
  9. Penicillin
    • Binds/inhibits transpeptidase
    • Kills actively growing cells
  10. Gram negative cell wall components
    • Porins
    • LPS - endotoxin
  11. Nalidixic acid
    • Binds bacterial DNA gyrase
    • prevents DNA replication
  12. Quinolones
    • Binds bacterial DNA gyrase
    • prevents DNA replication
  13. Rifampin
    • binds bacterial RNA polymerase
    • Prevents transcription
  14. Antibiotics targeting bacterial ribosome
    • Chloramphenicol
    • lincomycin
    • erythromycin
    • streptomycin
    • kanamycin
    • neomycin
  15. Endospores
    • Bacillus and Clostridium
    • Heat/chemical/desiccation resistant
  16. Obligate aerobes
    Require O2

    Mycobacterium
  17. Obligate anaerobes
    • O2 toxic
    • Use fermentation
    • Clostridia
  18. Sterilization
    Death of all organisms

    • Autoclave (heat)
    • Filtration
  19. Pasteurization
    • 62deg 30min
    • Destroys pathogens without changing flavor
  20. Disinfection
    • Chemicals kill microorganisms
    • Too toxic for internal use

    Alkylators, oxidizers, membrane disrupting
  21. Bactericidal antibiotics
    Inhibit cell wall formation or DNA replication or elongation

    Only kills growing/dividing organisms
  22. Bacteriostatic antibiotics
    Stops bacterial growth

    Prevents transcription or peptide bond formation
  23. RecA
    • Recombinase A
    • Required for homologos recombination (not req for transposons)
  24. Staph Aureus
    • Gram positive Beta hemolytic
    • Catalase positive
    • Coagulase positive (also hyaluronidase, lipase, nuclease)
    • can grow in high salt
    • may be normal flora (nose)
    • Beta toxin (sphingomyelinase C) and Leukocidin
    • some have mecA - MRSA
    • Subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
    • Polysaccharide composed of ribitol teichoic acid
    • Protein A
    • facultative anaerobes

    Skin infections, staph scalded skin syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning, wound infections, bacteremia (endocarditis, pneumonia, osteomyelitis)
  25. Staph epidermidis
    • Gram positive - no hemolysis
    • Facultative anaerobes
    • Catalase positive
    • Polysaccharide composed of glycerol teichoic acid

    • Endocarditis
    • Prosthetic/shunt infection
  26. Staph saprophyticus
    • Gram positive - no hemolysis
    • Facultative anaerobe
    • Catalase positive
    • Resistant to novobiocin

    Urinary tract infections
  27. Staph lugdunesis
    Gram positive, catalase positive

    Native valve endocarditis
  28. Alpha toxin
    Alpha hemolysin

    Hemolytic and necrotic
  29. Beta toxin
    Sphingomyelinase C

    • Degrade sphingomyelin
    • Works with alpha toxin to allow S. aureus to multiply in presence of inflammation
  30. Delta toxin
    Detergent like
  31. Leukocidin
    • Produced by most S. aureus
    • Attacks PMN and macrophages by permeabilizing cell membranes
  32. Exfoliative toxin
    • Protease causing staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in kids
    • Cleaves desmoglein 1
  33. Enterotoxins
    • 5 types
    • heat stable, resistant to enzymatic degradation
    • Rapid onset of sx (4-6h post-ingestion)
  34. Group A Strep
    • group A carbohydrate and peptidoglycan
    • Gram positive, catalase negative, beta hemolytic
    • M protein, lipteichic acid
    • Streptolysin O, streptokinase, streptodornase, hyaluronidase, C5a peptidase, protease
    • Pyrogenic exotoxins A, B, C (includes erythrogenic toxin inducing scarlet fever.

    Pharyngitis, Impetigo (skin infection with honey crusting discharge), puerperal sepsis in kinds, necrotizing fasciitis, lymphangitis, toxic shock syndrome

    Post infection - glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever
  35. Group B Strep
    • Group B carbohydrate and peptidoglycan
    • Gram positive, catalase negative, beta hemolytic
    • CAMP test to ID
    • Carried in GI/GU tracts, transmitted at birth

    Neonatal sepsis and meningitis
  36. Group D Streptococci
    • Gram positive, catalase negative, gamma (not) hemolytic
    • Grow in bile esculin and high salt
    • Enterococcus and Strep bovis
    • Normal intestinal flora

    UTI, peritonitis, subacute bacterial endocarditis
  37. Viridans streptococci
    • Gram positive, catalase negative, alpha (partial) hemolytic
    • Normal upper resp flora

    Subacute bacterial endocarditis, dental carries
  38. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Gram positive, catalase negative, alpha (partial) hemolytic
    • Capsule (Quelling rxn proves s pneu)
    • Optochin, mouse virulence, inulin fermentation, bile solubility test that it's pneumo not a diff alpha strep

    Pneumonia. Otitis media. bacteremia and meningitis
  39. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • Gram negative
    • aerobic, non-motile, non-spore
    • Oxidase positive
    • Can only use glucose
    • No polysaccharide capsule
    • Pili
    • Lipooligosaccharide = endotoxin like

    Purulent urethral or vaginal discharge, asymptomatic, ophthalmia neonatorum, sepsis --> migratory arthritis and dermatitis

    Can't use exudate smear to dx women
  40. Neisseria meningitidis
    • Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore
    • oxidase positive
    • Can use glucose AND maltose
    • No polysaccharide capsule
    • Lipooligosaccharide = endotoxin like
    • Pili
    • Carried in nasopharynx

    Bacteremia w/o sepsis, meningitis
  41. Moraxella catrrhalis
    Neisseria family

    Respiratory tract pathogen

    Tracheobronchitis, sinusitis, otitis media
  42. Bacillus
    anthracis and cereus

    • Gram-positive rods
    • aerobic
    • spores
    • toxins
    • Protein capsule
  43. Bacillus anthracis
    • Anthrax
    • A1(LF), A2(EF), B(PA) toxins combine to be letal and edema toxins
    • Spores in animals/soil --> humans through broken skin, ingestion, aerosol

    • Necrosis at broken skin site.
    • GI: Ulcer/lymphadenopathy, edema, sepsis
    • Inhaled: flu-like, lymphadenopathy, edema, sepsis, shock,
  44. Bacillus cereus
    • Emetic toxin (rice)
    • Heat stable, protease resisten toxin
    • 1-6 hours after ingestion, resolved in 8-10h

    • Diarrheal toxin (Meat/vegetable)
    • not heat stable
    • Onset 18-24h
  45. Nocardia
    • Filamentous, non-spore-forming gram positive rods
    • Aerobes
    • Urease positive
    • Catalase positive

    Bronchopulmonary disease, clymphocutaneous lesions, mycetoma
  46. Actinomyces
    • Filamentous non-spore-forming gram positive rods
    • ANaerobic
    • Sulfur granules in tissues
    • Normal flora of female GU

    Granulomatous lesions, cervicofacial actinomycosis (lumpy jaw), pelvic actinomycosis
  47. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • Club-shaped, gram-positive
    • Gravis, intermedius, and mitis species
    • Not invasive

    Exotoxin causes myocarditis, demyelination, and kidney tubular necrosis
  48. Corynebacteria
    • C. diphtheriae
    • Arcanobacterium hemolyticum (pharyngitis, scarletiniform rash)
    • C. jeikeisum (bacteremic disease in CA pts)
    • Rhodococcus equi (cavitary pneumonia in AIDS pts)
  49. Listeria monocytogenes
    • Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic, motile cocci
    • Beta-hemolysis, postive CAMP test
    • Listeriolysin O damage phagosome membrane

    Meningitis and sepsis
  50. Legionella
    • Legionnaires disease
    • Gram-negative pleomorphic rod
    • Transmitted from soil/water sources

    Pneumonia, pontiac fever (flu-like)
  51. Brucella
    • gram-negative, aerobic cocci
    • B. abortus, B. suis, B. melitensis, B. canis
    • Intracellular pathogen
    • Granulomatous

    Causes fever, affects, liver, spleen, CNS, bone
  52. Yersinia pestis
    • gram-negative rod
    • F1 and V/W capsular antigen
    • Spread by fleas from animas
    • Bubonic plague
  53. Yersinia
    • Y. pestis
    • Y. enterocolitica (GI)
    • Y. pseudotuberculosis (GI)
  54. Francisella tularensis
    • Gram-negative
    • Spread from rabbits (btw them by fleas and ticks)
    • Live in monocytes

    Ulceroglandular (swollen nodes), pneumonic if get to lungs, typhoidal if ingested contaminated food/water
  55. Pasteurella multocida
    Normal animal flora, spread by bites
  56. Enterobacteriaceae
    • Gram-negative rods
    • Oxidase negative, reduce nitrate to nitrite and don't require NaCl
    • E. Coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter
    • All over nature: soil, plants, animal flora
    • Antigens: O (somatic), H (flagella), K (capsular), VI (subtypes of capsular)
    • Toxins: cytotoxins and hemolysins, enterotoxins, endotoxins, capsules, plasmids

    Diarrhea, abdominal absecesses, UTI, pneumonia, wound infections, bacteremia, meningitis
  57. Escherichia coli
    • UTI (#1 cause)
    • ETEC Enterotoxigenic: Travelers diarrhea (#1 cause)
    • EPEC enteropathogenic: watery diarrhea in kids
    • EIEC enterinvasive: febrile sever diarrhea
    • EHEC enterohemorrhagic: afebrile, gross blood, hemolytic/uremic syndrome
    • EAggEC enteroaggregative: water diarrhea
    • Neonatal meningitis
  58. Klebsiella
    Lobar pneumonia in compromised hosts
  59. Nosocomial infections
    • Hospital acquired
    • Enterobacter, citrobacter, serratia
  60. UTI
    • Urinary Tract infection
    • E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus
  61. Protease
    • Swarming growth on plate
    • Urease positive
    • UTI
  62. Toxin mediated diarrhea
    • Incubation 2-24 hours, resolves in 2-5days
    • Water stool, afebrile
    • Vibrio cholera, enterotoxigenic E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Clostridium perfringens
  63. Partial mucosal invasion diarrhea
    • Organisms attach to colon mucosa, cause ulceration
    • Dysentery w blood and pus and WBCs in stool, fever
    • Incubation 2-4days
    • Shigella, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium difficile, invasive E. coli, Entamoeba histolytica
  64. Complete mucosal invasion diarrhea
    • Organism attaches to colon and invades full thickness of bowel into lymph/blood
    • Salmonella typhi, Yersinia
  65. Vibrio cholera
    • aerobic cerved gram-negative rod
    • salt water exposure
    • Causes diarrhea by partial mucosal invasion
  66. Campylobacter jejuni
    • Most common cause of diarrhea
    • curved gram-negative rod
    • Microaerobe
    • Unpasteurized milk/animals
  67. Salmonella
    • Non-spore-forming aerobic gram-negative rod
    • Pathogen of poulty, cows, pigs, pets, pet turtles
    • Unpasteurized milk
  68. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Slender acid-fast rod (no gram staining), niacin and catalase positive
    • Mycolic acid in cell wall
    • Slow growth (12h doubling time)

    Granulomas in oxygen-rich environment (lung, kidney, CNS) Upper lung lobes preferred.

    Tested for by DTH = PPT (purified protein derivative), chest xray, serology
  69. Mycobacteria
    • M. tuberculosis
    • M. kansasii (sim to tb)
    • M. avium (fevers, diarrhea, wt loss in HIV pts)
    • M. intracellulare (fevers, diarrhea, wt loss in HIV pts)
    • M. fortuitum (Pulm, skin/soft tissue)
    • M. chelonae (Keratitis)
    • M. leprae (Hanson's disease/leprosy)
    • M. marinum (fish tank)
  70. Mycobacterium leprae
    • Hanson's disease/leprosy
    • Spread person-person contact
    • 2 syndromes: 1) tuberculoid 2) lepromatous (lesions of bone and cartilage)
    • Can't be cultured
  71. Clostridia
    • Anaerobic gram positive, spore-forming
    • Exotoxins in soils, animal/human GI
    • gas gangenes, C tetani, C botulinum, C difficile
  72. Gas gangrene clostridia
    • C perfringens, C novyi, C septicum
    • Gas gangrene, cellulitis, food poisoning
    • Toxins: alpha (lecithinase), theta (hemolysin), enterotoxin
    • Transfered into open wound or ingestion
  73. Clostridia tetani
    • Tetanus
    • Anaerobic, gram positive rod with terminal spore, no capsule
    • Incubation 4d to 3wk
    • Muscle spasms, death due to resp m fail
    • Virulence factor: tetanospasmin
  74. Clostridia botulinum
    • Botulism
    • Anaerobic gram-positive rod
    • Incubation 18-96 hours
    • Flaccid paralysis, death by resp m failure
    • Transfered by ingestion
    • Toxin mediated
  75. Clostridia difficile
    • Diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis
    • Associated with antibiotics in hospitalized patients
    • Virulence factores: toxin A (enterotoxin), toxin B (cytotoxin)
    • ID by detecting toxin B or ELISA
  76. Non-spore forming anaerobes
    • Often component of normal flora
    • Bacteroides fragilis
    • Actinomyces
    • Propionibacterium acnes
    • Peptostreptococcus
  77. Pseudomonas
    • Aerobe, motile, gram-negative rod, non-spore-forming
    • Oxidase positive
    • Ps. aeruginosa
    • Grows in soil and water
    • Toxins: endotoxin and exotoxin A
    • Opportunistic (often nosocomial)

    Pneumonia, chronic otitis, whirlpool folliculitis, UTI, burn wound sepsis
  78. Hemophilus
    • H. influenzae, H parainfluenzae, H. aegyptius (conjunctivitis), H. ducreyi (soft chancre), gardnerella vaginalis
    • Gram negative
    • Sometimes capsulated
    • Growth factors X (hematin), V (NAD)
    • Normal flora of resp
    • (Gib vaccine)

    Meningitis, epiglottitis, bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia
  79. Bordetella
    • Gram negative rod
    • B. pertussis, B parapertussis, B bronchiseptica,
  80. Bordetella pertussis
    • Aerobic, encapsulated
    • Virulence factors: pertussis toxin, FHA, PRN, FIM, adenylate cyclase toxin, endotoxin, tracheal cytotoxin, heat-labile toxin
    • Transmitted by droplets

    Whooping cough, resp infection, lmphocytosis
  81. Spirochetes
    • Then, helical gram negative
    • Treponema, Berrelia, Leptospira
  82. Treponema
    • Spirochete with single periplasmic flagellum
    • T. pallidum ssp. pallidum, T. pallidum ssp. endenicum, T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, T. carateum
  83. Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum
    • Syphilis
    • Transmitted sexually, congenitally
    • Can't be cultured
    • 3 stages: primary (painless chancre 3-6wks), secondary (flu, mucocutaneous rash, nodes; 2 weeks after chancres heal), tertiary (noninfectious, granulomas, neurosyphilis, cv)
    • Congenital like 2ndary: susceptible after 4th gestational month, congenital malformations, rhinits, rash
  84. Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Lyme disease
    • Longer, loosely coild, multiple flagella
    • Can be cultured
    • From white-footed mouse transmitted by deer tick
    • 3 stages: primary lesion at bite sie 3-30days, fever, muscle, joint pains. 2) nervous system,heart. 3) nondestructive arthritis, chronic CNS sx memory, mood, sleep
    • Dx by ELISA, western blot
  85. Borrelia recurrentis
    • Relapsing fever
    • Long, coiled organism; multiple flagella
    • Louse or tick spread
    • Fever, HA, myalgia
  86. Leptospira interrogans
    • Weil's disease
    • Thin, single axial filament, spiraled organism with hook ends
    • Spread by animals, contact with urine
    • Sx: flu-like, CNS, hepatic/renal
    • Dx by culture, ELISA. Blood for first week, urine after
  87. Trench mouth
    • Vincent's infection
    • Anaerobic, synergistic infections of gums, oral cavity or oropharynx
  88. Rickettsial rickettsiae
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • incubation 2-6 days
    • Fever, HA, myalgia, rash, vasculitis
  89. Rickettsial prowazekii
    • Typhus
    • Transmitted by body louse
    • Fever, HA, chills, rash
  90. Rickettsial typhi
    • Murine Typhus
    • Transmitted by fleas
  91. Rickettsial tsutsugamushi
    Scrub typhus
  92. Coxiella burnetii
    • Q fever
    • Spores
    • Resevoirs in sheep, goats, cattle
    • Inhaled
    • Resp infection (no rash)
  93. Bartonella henselae
    • Cat scratch fever
    • Bacillary anigiomatosis in AIDS pts
  94. Mycoplasma
    • Smallest, simplest, self-replicating bacteria
    • M. pneumoniae, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum
    • Form pleomorphic filaments in culture
  95. Mycoplasma pneumonia
    Usually upper respiatory infection, less frequently pneumonia with 4-6wk recovery time
  96. Nongonococcal urethritis
    • U. urealyticum
    • M. hominis
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • STI
  97. Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Obligate intracellular parasite
    • Transmitted by flies, fingers, fomites
    • Causes blindness and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, epididymitis, pneumonia
  98. Chlamydia psittaci
    • Psittacosis
    • From birds
    • Pneumonia
  99. Chlamydia pneumoniae
    Bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis

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