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Scientifcic psychology os based on?
The term "imperical" means?
False psychological information
The only things that make up behavior are?
What false information and ideas in astrology persist?
Gives us a sense of predictability.
Likely to impair our judgement.
Has no scientific basis.
Early dudes w/ their feet in a bucket of ice were trying to figure out?
Structure of the mind.
Frued's ideas were influenced by several assumptions and eveents?
Anti-semetic country, in a declining age.
Darwin is credited for?
Being the 1st to introduce biology into psychology.
The growing trend in modern psychology.
Facultive communication is?
A false idea.
Why is scientific psychology always superior to others ways of knowledge?
It's based on evidence and openness.
You have to state a theory, so that it can be found false.
Openness in science means?
We are open to challange any findings.
Use of representitive sample in research means?
The use of a sample the represents the whole group.
Very limited in their usefulness.
The problem w/ observational studies?
They only describe behavior, not explain it.
Psychological tests, inorder to be useful must?
Be reliable and valid.
Show the strength of a relationship.
Experiments are used to show?
Cause and effect relationships.
The independent variable in an experiment is ?
What the experimentor maipulates.
Inferential statistics are used for?
Determining how meaningful the data is.
Population growth in humans?
Exponential and we have removed the strengths.
Why do some individual members of some species have more offspring then others?
They are better adapted to the local environment.
What function would the eye serve if it was not integrated into the brain?
The speed of evolution determined by all but, the following ?
Humans are not solving the critical problems of today?
Because of a mis-matched, old mind.
Evidence for evolution by natural selection includes, all but one of the following?
Direct experiments on humans.
Sexual selection, is a type of selection?
That explains traits refined to attract potential mates.
Women are drawn to men who are good resource harvesters, why?
Men w/ more money are more likely to take care of the kids.
The reason blue eyes remain in the human population is?
Because they are sexier.
Is natural selection still going on for humans? If so why, or why not?
Yes. There is variation in differential reproduction rates.
Men look at womens bodies alot because?
Its an indicator of fertility.
What is the ultimate cause of variation in all characteristics?
There are only 2 possibilities of all thoughts, feelings & behavior?
Is caused by the brain.
Traits and characteriatics are polygenetic & are?
Variable and on a normal curve.
What is the purpose on the nervous system?
Gather and process information, and make responses to stimulai.
In general what do the limbic system and amygdala control?
The purpose of neurotrasmitters is to?
Carry a message across the synapse.
Which one of the lobes and function are correct?
Occipital for vision.
The sense of self is?
A variable interpetation module.
Neuro-genesis refers to?
How brain cells are created in the adult brain.
Controls production of hormones.
The reticular activation system controls?
Brain placticity, refers to?
Areas of the brain that can change their function.
The axoms job is to?
Send a message.
Sponges don't have eyes ?
It woud not increase their fitness.
Our visual perception of a cave/
Appears darker on top.
Why do our eyes only respond to a limited range of electromagnetic energy?
The rest of the spectrum wouldn't help us much.
Which of the following anmals is most likely to hear a high-frequency sound?
Chemical senses include?
smell and taste.
If a tree falls in the woods, and no one is there to hear it, does it make a sound?
No, it compresses the air and the sound is in your brain.
Is pain a good thing?
Yes, it can prevent us from damageing our bodies.
Co-evolution refers to?
How 2 species can be selection pressures for each other.
Are sensitive to bright light, and give color vision.
Why is it bettr to catch a bird at night, when its around sunset and getting dark?
They only hvae cones in their eyes.
The principal of modularity is found in?
What is emotion?
a energizing directional aspect that guides behavior.
Certain emotions are interpeted the same.
Be achived for a limited time only.
Which of th following is evidence for the concept of "social contruction of motives" is totally wrong?
Disgust, is an example of an evolved universal motive.
Harry Harlow and his research in mokies showed?
Touch was more of important then food for attachment.
How did the avg. person's happiness change w/ the doubling of income?
It hasn't changed.
Comparing a rich person to a despretly poor person, you would find that?
On avg. the rich person is happier.
Homicide is an act of violece?
Most likely be caused by status or honor insult.
Testosterone in men is most associated with?
All of the above. Status, aggressive behavior, and dominence.
A males honest signal of commitment to a female is?
Costly and hard to fake.
The purpose of guilt is?
To motivate you to repair broken relationships.
Cross-culturally people categorize living things on the basis of?
What things do we forget most easily?
Things we don't use.
An efficiency tool for the mind.
The word cognitive means?
Mental information processing.
Our evolved mental nature is?
To move things into categories.
The retention effect in memory is?
Better recall of all recent memory.
If you study using caffine, you should take a test using caffine, why?
Your internal chemistry is associated w/ the material being learned.
The results of Watson's selection test suggest?
The cheater detection module can be used to help us solve logic problems.
Most of our rational judgements are made with?
The availability heuristic leads us to?
Over estimating things that easily come to mind.
Cheater detection probally evolved to?
Protect reciprical alturisum.
Categorization of the mind leads to?
Saveing time and neural energy.
Schools were invented to learn things that?
Are evolutinary novel.
Our behavior depends on?
- Innate mechanisms
Takes many forms in the same species.
Is the result of the effects of consequences to our behavior.
In classical conditioning the uncontrolled stimulai (UCS)?
Must be proceeded by the uncontrolled response (UCR).
In the example "Little Albert" his fear was conditioned by?
The over-justification effect in instumental conditioning is a result of?
To much reinforcement.
We cannot learn to fear electrical outlets in the home easily because?
They are not evolutionary relevant to a threat.
Facultative adaptations are?
Designed to adjust the trait to changes in the environment.
Animals find it easiest to learn things?
That make sense in their natural ecology.
Learning occurs when?
Behavior is modified bt experience.
Different animals evolved different learning mechanisms because?
They face different challanges and oppurtunities.
What is the mismatch hypothesis?
It means that many problems of our health are the result of a mismatch between our evolved characteristics and our present environment.
What is a setpoint?
Body weight is maintained by a feedback system with a setpoint. This system operates without our having to think about it.
Describe, "The Paleolithic Diet"?
- 80% plants, 20% meat.
- The range of available foods varied widely not only geographically but also seasonally.
- Far greater than the variety of food we eat today.
Describe the “MODERN” diet?
- High in fat, and sugar.
- Low fiber, calorically high.
What are carbs?
- The body's most preferred source of energy.
- All food made of grain flour, cereals, pasta, potatoes and other vegetables.
- Contained in fruits, syrups, honey and candy, table "sugar".
What are simple carbs?
Are quick energy sources.Usually do not supply any other nutrients or fiber.
What are complex carbs?
Supply energy and other nutrients and fiber that the body needs.Derived from plants.
What is fiber?
Dietary fiber is a complex carbohydrate and is the part of the plant material that cannot be digested and absorbed in the bloodstream.Makes you feel full longer.
What is soluble fiber?
- Helps with weight loss as it makes you feel full longer.
- Lowers blood cholesterol.
- Includes oatmeal, oat bran, barley, dried beans and legumes, and citrus fruits.
What is insoluble fiber?
- It speeds up the passage of material through the digestive tract.
- Reduces the risk of colon cancer and diverticular disease.
- Includes wheat bran, whole grain cereals, and fruit and vegetable skins.
What is sugar?
- Glucose is the major kind of simple sugar.
- Glucose is the basic source of energy for all living things.
- Supplies the body with quick energy.
- It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables.
- Produced in the body by breaking down other foods into glucose.
An example of spinal reflex is?
All the above.
What is diabetes?
- It happens when the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar the blood.
- Blood glucose level is regulated by several hormones, primarily insulin.
- People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin (type 1) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2), or both.
- When glucose in the blood cannot move efficiently into cells, so blood glucose levels remain high.
What two revolutions removed are we from, the paleolithic diet?
What are the main differences between our diet and our ancestors diet?Today we eat a narrower range of foods .We evolved a taste for salt, sweet, and fat because they were scarce in our E.A.ANow that things are not scarce-in fact, they are relatively cheap, and there is an adbundence, so we eat too much of them.
- Today we eat a narrower range of foods.
- We evolved a taste for salt, sweet, and fat because they were scarce in our E.A.A
- Now that things are not scarce-in fact, they are cheap, and in adbundence.
What is social companionship?
Taking part in social activities.
What is instrumental support?
When friends give us physical aid.
What is information support?
When friends pass on important information.
What is esteem support?
The good feelings we receive from being with friends.
What is self-similarity?
- A structure repeated on a different level of complexity or at a different scale.
- Like a snowflake.
What are stressors?
Things that create stress.
What is the recommended weekly exercise amount?2 hours every other day. We are best suited for slow running or fast walking.Regulates motabilism.Reduce stress.
- 2 hours every other day.
- We are best suited for slow running or fast walking.
- Regulates motabilism.
- Reduce stress.
What are some anidotes to stress?
- Cognitive restructuring
What are psychoactive drugs?
- Drugs such as cannabis
- They act on evolved receptor sites, and give us a false sense of fitness.
Descibe the effects stress has on eating?
- High stress, we eat.
- REALLY high sress, we don't eat.
Describe the reproduction rate of males?
- Fast sex.
- QUICK to re-enter the reproduction pool.
Describe the reproduction rate of females?
- Slow sex.
- SLOW to re-enter reproduction pool.
What is the "red queen" hypothesis?
Why do we sexually reproduce?
What do men prefer in women?
- Physical attractivness.
- 7% hip-to-waist ratio.
What do women prefer in men (older)?
What are mixed mating strategies?
What do women look for in a "one-night stand"?
What do men look for in a "one-night stand"?
Almost anything, considerably lowering their standards.
What are the universal characteristics of attractiveness?
- Good genes
- Good health
- We try to mate w/ the most attractive person in ones local population.
What is the age range of a child's death, that provides the greatest amount of greif for their parents?
15-20 years of age.
Describe the effects of testosterone on men?
- Die younger.
- Compromises their immune system.
- Makes men more "risky."
What cuts down on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (S.I.D.S)?
Babies sleeping in bed w/ their parents.
What does, or how do the differences in reproduction rates in men and women differ?
- Men can have thousands of kids, women only a few.
- Females are more "picky".
- Men want to have as many sexual partners as possible.
Why is there family conflict?
Different genetic interests.
Name 3 evolutionary adaptations?
- Food Pickiness
- Seperation/ Attachment anxiety
- Fear of heights
What is "kin selected alturism"?
- Tells us we are likely to share with our kin.
- All alturism must eventually pay-off reproductivly.
- We share more w/ our family.
What causes mental disorders?
What is trephening?
- The act of surgically perforating in the skull for perceived therapeutic purposes.
- Patients often died from this practice.
What is the Rosenham study?
The first part involved "pseudopatients" who simulated auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals.All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission, the pseudopatients acted normally and told staff that they felt fine and had not experienced any more hallucinations. Hospital staff failed to detect a single pseudopatient, and instead believed that all of the pseudopatients exhibited symptoms of ongoing mental illness
What is bi-polar disorder?
- a brain disorder that causes, unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.
- Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe.
- Bipolar disorder symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide
What is anxiety?
- Fellings of threat or danger.
- Generalized by panic attacks, PTSD, ADHD.
What is obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)?
- is an anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors you feel compelled to perform.
- OCD causes the brain to get stuck on a particular thought or urge.
- For example, you may check the stove twenty times to make sure it’s really turned off, wash your hands until they’re scrubbed raw
What is schizophrenia?
A mental disorder,including emotional blunting,intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech andbehavior, delusions, and hallucinations.
Men are more likely to what two, mental disorders?
- Autism, which men are 4X more likely to have.
- ADHD, which men are 10X more likely to have.
What is post-partum depression?
Depression after the birth of one's child.
Name 4 types of depression and their severity?
- S.A.D.-seasonal affictive disorder, needs sunlight (2hrs a day)
Who is Phineas Gage?
American railroad construction foreman had a large iron rod driven through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, the injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior were so profound that friends saw him as "no longer Gage"
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