Biology 225 Sample Final

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msu-malexander
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Biology 225 Sample Final
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2011-12-04 18:39:22
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Biology 225 Sample Finals
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  1. The trigger zone of a neuron includes
    the dendrites
  2. at the distal end of a nerve fiber, action potentials have the same voltage as they had at thte beginning. That is to say they are
    nondecremental
  3. when a neuron is depolarized to threshold,
    voltage-regulated Na+ gates open
  4. the falling phase of an action potential results from
    the diffusion of K+
  5. nerve signals,
    travel fastest in large myelinated fibers
  6. One role of the astrocytes is to
    help the blood brain barrier
  7. what is an example of an effector
    an efferent neuron
  8. the intergrative function of the nervous system is associated especially with
    association neurons (interneurons)
  9. The ____ nervous system carries brain and spinal cord signals to other organs
    central
  10. a neuron fires only when its membrane reaches
    the threshold potential
  11. During the rising phase of an action potential
    Na+ is entering the neuron
  12. The cytoplasm, nucleus, and outer wrapping of plasma mambrane of the schwann cells constitute the
    myelin
  13. The first thing that occurs when a nerve signal reaches a synaptic knob is
    ACh binds to a receptor
  14. A bipolar neuron has
    one axon and one dendrite arising from the soma
  15. The regeneration tube of a peripheral nerve fiber consist of
    the myelin sheath and neurolemma
  16. Mature neurons lack centrioles. You would expect these neurons to be unable to
    undergo mitosis
  17. The oligodendrocyte is found in the ___ and functions to
    central nervous system, form the myelin sheath
  18. Glial cells which resemble a cubiotal epithelium without the basement membrane and produce CSF are called
    ependymal cells
  19. Most adult brain tumors are composed of___ cells and cannot be treated by chemotherapy because of the _____.
    glial cells; blood brain barrier
  20. neurons that send impulses to skeletal muscles have a ____ diameter and are___
    large; myelinated
  21. What is the correct sequence of voltage-regulated gates opening and closing in an action potential?
    Na+ gates opening; K+ gates opening; Na+ gates closing
  22. the ventral rami of the spinal nerves from nerves plexuses in all regions except
    the thoracic region
  23. The spinal cord ends at about which vertebrae?
    L1
  24. Nerves in the pelvic region and lower limbs arise from an area of the spinal cord called the ____ enlargement
    lumbar
  25. A bundle of nerve roots that occupy the canal of the vertebrae L2 to S5 are called the
    cauda equina
  26. Spinal cord injuries commonly result from fractures of vertebraes C5 to C6, but never from fractures of L3 to L5. This is because vertebrae C5 to C6
    are smaller and more fragile than vertebrae L3 to L5
  27. The innermost meninx around the spinal cord is called the___ and extends beyond the medullary cone as the___
    pia mater; filum terminale
  28. The ventral root carries ____ neurons, while the dorsal root carries ____ neurons.
    motor; sensory
  29. Anesthetics and anti-inflammitory drugs are introduced into this space in the spinal cord
    epidural
  30. individuals with parkinsons disease do not produce enough dopamine. Injections of dopamine do not help either. This is because?
    it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier
  31. Two cranial nerves involved in taste are
    facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX)
  32. The white matter of the cerebellum constitutes its
    arbor vitae
  33. Almost all sensory signals pass through the ___ on the way to the cerebrum
    thalamus
  34. _____ connect one gyrus to another within the same cerebral hemisphere
    association tracts
  35. The ____ contains nuclei that control coouching, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
    medulla oblongata
  36. The brain center most concerned with emotion is
    the limbic system
  37. Which of the following nerve endings are not found in the skin?
    proprioceptors
  38. The loudness of a sound is correlated with the ___ of the sound wave
    amplitude
  39. Other than the optic disc, the only point where the retina is attached to the rest of the eyeball is an anterior ring called
    the ora serrata
  40. When the stapes pushes in and creates pressure on the endolymph, the ___ bulges out to relieve the pressure
    secondary tymanic membrane in the round window
  41. The sensory cells of hearing are stimulated by the ___ resting on their stereocilia
    basilar membrane
  42. We sense rotary movements of the head when the endolymph pushes on a gelatinous cap called the ___ on a semicircular duct
    cupula
  43. What is part of the fibrous tunic of the eye?
    the sclera
  44. The blind spot in each visual field is a region in which
    the iris casts a shadow on part of the retina
  45. The footplate of the stapes covers an opening called
    the oval window
  46. Suppose you are sitting in a rotating chair in a hair salon with your eyes closed, and the chair was rotated. you could sense this by means of your
    semicircular ducts
  47. The function of the suspensory ligaments is to
    hold the lense of your eye in place
  48. Tate buds are found on all the lingual papillae except for the ___ type.
    fungiform
  49. The ___ is attached to the medial side of the typanic membrane.
    malleus
  50. The ____ nervous system carries brain and spinal cord signals to other organs
    central
  51. The corpus callosum is composed of
    commissural fibers
  52. cerebrospianl fluid serves what functions
    cushion the brain from blows and provide a stable chemical environment for the nervous tissue
  53. The primary somesthetic cortex monitors which senses
    tickle and touch
  54. The cerebrum and cerebellum contains thick folds or ridges called___ whose purpose is to____.
    gyri; increase surface area
  55. the second largest region of the brain is the___, whose function is to____.
    cerebellum; coordinate skeletal muscles
  56. The neurons and all glial cells except microglia are derived from embryonic tissue called ___ that thickens to form a structure called the ____ in the third week of embyronic development.
    ectoderm; neural plate
  57. the lumen of the neural tube develops into the
    central canal and ventricles
  58. The outer double meningeal layer around the brain is called the _____, and in some places the two layers are seperated by the ___
    dura mater; dural sinuses
  59. the trigger zone of a neuron indludes
    the axon hillock
  60. the symptoms of ___ are high fever, stiff neck, drowziness, and intense headache
    meningitis
  61. a network of capillaries in the brain that produce CSF is called the ___ and is surrounded y glial cells called _____.
    choroid plexus; ependymal cells
  62. The blood brain barrier is most permeable to which chemicals
    glucose, water, oxygen, alcohol, and caffeine
  63. Neurons that send impulses to skeletal muscles have a ___ diameter and are ___.
    large; myelinated
  64. In this disorder, oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths of the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by hardend scar tissue
    multiple sclerosis
  65. Damaged neurons in the PNS can regenerate if their ___ is in tact and they can form a ____.
    soma; regeneration tube
  66. which sensory funciton involves neurons in the dorsal root ganglia?
    touch
  67. The cerebellum develops from the embryonic
    metencephalon
  68. What is most concered with motor coordination and equilibrium?
    the cerebellum
  69. Which lobe of the cerebrum is most concered with vision
    the occipital lobe
  70. CSF returns to the bloodstream by way of
    the arachnoid villi and dural sinuses
  71. Damage to the temporal lobe would most likely cause the individual to be unable to
    hear
  72. What is under dual control of the ANS
    iris, heart, salivary glands, digestive system
  73. This group of nerves does not come from the brian or spinal cord
    enteric
  74. Most parasympathetic fibers reach their target organs by way of
    the vagus nerve
  75. The ___ system is characterized by long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers
    craniosacral
  76. What is not controlled by the autonomic nervous system
    skeletal muscle
  77. in response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ___ in the walls of the arteries carrying blood to the heart will cause the heart to ___ its beats per minute.
    baroreceptors; decrease
  78. The system that stimuates normal conditions in the body such as lowered heart rate, and increased gastrointestional activites such as digestion, secretion, and defecation is the
    parasympathetic division
  79. The somas of somatic motor neurons are found in the __ of the spinal cord, while the somas of preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division are found in the ___ of the spinal cord.
    ventral horns; lateral horns
  80. In the ANS the preganglionic neuron releases ___, while the postganglionic neuron releases ___
    ACh; ACh or NE
  81. All receptors for ___ are confined to the head and are innervated by cranial nerves
    the special senses
  82. The receptors for taste are located on
    stereocillia on gustatory cells
  83. these cells are the only neurons in the body exposed to the external environment, and unlike most neurons, they are replaceable.
    olfactory cells
  84. the aqueous humor is secreted by the ___ and reabsorbed into the ____.
    cilliary body; sclera venous sinus
  85. What is most concerned with motor coordination and equilibrium?
    the cerebellum

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