# PFT4

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 Author: jenpfist ID: 120747 Filename: PFT4 Updated: 2011-12-05 17:58:30 Tags: Chap4 Folders: Description: Chapter4 Show Answers:

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1. A study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body
Biomechanics
2. Position above a point of reference
Superior
3. Position below a point of reference
Inferior
4. Positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference
Proximal
5. Positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
Distal
6. On the front of the body
Anterior (ventral)
7. On the back of the body
Posterior (dorsal)
8. Positioned near the middle of the body
Medial
9. Toward the outside of the body
Lateral
10. Positioned on the opposite side of the body.
Ex: the right foot to the left had
Contralateral
11. Positioned on the same side of the body
Ex: the right foot to the right hand
Ipsilateral
12. An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
Sagittal
13. The bending of a joint causing the angle to the joint to decrease
flexion
14. The straightening of a joint causing the angle to the joint to increase
Extension
15. An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves
Frontal Plane
16. Movement of a body part away from the middle of the body
Abduction
17. Movement of a body part toward the middle of the body
18. An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves
Transverse plane
19. Rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
Internal rotation
20. Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
External Rotation
21. Movements in the sagittal plane include
_________ and ______.
Flexion, extension
22. Movements in the frontal plane are ________ and ______.
23. Movements in the transverse plane are _____ and ____ .
internal and external rotation.
24. Shoulder flexion
25. shoulder extension
• dorsiflexion
• (pointing down = plantarflexion)
26. abduction
27. Moving in the same direction as the resistance
Decelerates or reduces force
lengthening of the muscle
Eccentric
28. No visible movement with or against resistance
Dynamically stabilizes force
Muscle maintains a certain length
Isometric
29. Moving in the opposite direction of force
Accelerates or produces force
Shortening of the muscle
Concentric
30. rhomboid muscle
31. Sartorius muscle
32. Anterior hip muscles
33. An interaction between two entities or bodies that result in either the acceleration or deceleration of an object.
Force
34. The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force. There is an optimal length at which the actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere have the greatest degree of overlap results in the potential for maximal force production.
Length-tension relationship
35. The ability of muscles to produce force with increasing velocity. As the velocity of a concentric muscle contreaction increases its ability to produce force decreases. Conversely as the velocity of muscle actions increases with eccentric muscle action , the ability to develop force increases.
Force-velocity curve
36. The synergistic action of muscles to produce movement around a joint. All muscles working together for the production of proper movement are said to be working this.
Force-couple
37. To ensure that the kinetic chain moves in the right manner, it must exhibit proper _______ relationships. This can only happen if the muscles are at the right ___________ relationships and the joints have proper __________ (joint motion).
• Force Couple
• Length tension
• arthrokinematics
38. Movement of the bones and joints. The levers (bones) rotate arount the axis (joints).
rotary motion
39. Turning effect of the joint
torque
40. >Is concerned with those neural structures that are involved with motor behavior and how they produce movement.
>The study of posture and movements and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate the sensory information with previous experiences.
Motor control
41. Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
Synergies
42. % of population that experiences low back pain
# ACL injuries that occur yearly
• 85%
• 80,000-100,000
43. The cumulative sensory input to the cns from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements.
Proprioception
44. The ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory information and select and execute the proper motor response.
Sensorimotor integration
45. repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements.
motor learning
46. the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning
feedback
47. The process whereby sensory information is used by the body via length-tension relationships (posture), force-couple relationships, and arthrokinematics to reactively monitor movement and the environment.
Internal feedback
48. Information provided by some external source, such as health and fitness professional, mirror, heart rate monitor
External feedback

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