GEOG 300

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  2. define, compare, and contrast lifespan and longevity?
    • Lifespan
    • represents maximum longevity
    • "the ceiling"
    • 120-125 years

    • Longevity
    • the absolute number of years any human could hope to survive
    • measured by life expectancy
    • ability to resist death
  3. What are the major causes of death historically and today?
    • Historically
    • in 1900, the leading cause of death was influenza and pneumonia
    • war, famines, and epidemics caused fluctuations in death rates

    • Today
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • stroke

    • Life Expectancy
    • 1850 - 39
    • 1900 - 47
    • 1950 - 68
    • 2000 - 77
  4. describe the impact of the Plague?
  5. How has HIV/AIDS altered life expectancy?
    • It brings the "would be" life expectancy down dramatically
    • Countries like Botswana and Zimbabwe would have LEs of over 70 if it were not for AIDS
    • Instead their LEs are 27 and 35
  6. explain what mortality differentials are, and how some of them affect mortality rates?
    • Age
    • the probablility of dying is relatively high for infants under age one, is very low for children, adolescents, and yong adults, and then begins to rise more and more rapidly in the older ages
    • in developing countries, children under five account for half of all deaths; in developed nations, the number is only 2%
    • Sex
    • the risk of death appears to be greater for males at all ages; even among fetal deaths
    • some suggest the difference is contributed to occupation, status, and role; males usually have more hazardous occupations than females
    • men are also less likely to go to doctors for regular checkups, more likely to medicate themselves, and more likely to abuse their bodies
    • Ethnicity, race
    • Socio-economic status:
    • Education, occupation, & income
  7. describe the stages of the Epidemiological Transition
    the transition a society goes through in which death rates decline and the major causes of death shift from communicative diseases to degenerative diseases

    • mortality has become "compressed"
    • compressed meaning put into a certain age group
    • mortality has become "rectangularized"
    • straight lines show improvement in mortality rates
    • in MEDCs, you have long straight line, then a sudden drop off at high ages...rectangular looking...upside down 90 degree angle

    • Stage 1
    • Pestilence and famine
    • Malthus
    • lots of death

    • Stage 2
    • Receding pandemics
    • pandemic meaning wide area affecting large population
    • improvements in water and sanitation

    • Stage 3
    • Degenerative diseases
    • control of pandemics
    • age related diseases

    • Stage 4
    • Delayed degenerative diseases
    • done by medical technology
    • control of degenerative; extend life

    • Stage 5 ???
    • returning pandemics
    • Malthus
    • though of disease being controlled coming back stronger; malaria (DDT)
  8. How have war (especially WWII) and geography impacted mortality rates?
    • WW11
    • huge advances came during this time
    • need to keep your soldiers alive

    • 9/11
    • robotic technology for loss of limbs/fingers
    • came strictly from Iraq soldiers losing arms/fingers

    • Geo
    • smaller countries make larger gains due to close proximity
    • Europeanization brought their innovations with them, causing a higher l.e. wherever they went
  9. explain the significance of infant mortality?

    Why do infant mortality rates vary around the world?
    why does it vary

    • rural/urban
    • difficult to find doctor

    • Education
    • preparation prior to birth

    • status of women
    • according to the book, in every country studies, the ICMR fell as the education of mothers improved

    • malnutrition
    • contributing factor in up to 40% of child dealths; perhaps 200 million children in developing world are malnourished; 12 million in the US

    • small country
    • easier to distribute tech
  10. describe the characteristics and causes (indirect, direct) of maternal mortality?

    What is the situation in Mozambique?
    • Pregnancy deaths higher in developing world as well
    • Overall, 500,000 deaths a year
    • 450,000 come from the developing world
    • Canada 6/100,000
    • Sierra Leone 1800/100,000
    • yikes...

    Causes can be indirect (20%) or direct (80%)

    • The three risk factors
    • Lack of prenatal care
    • Not giving birth in a hospital
    • Seeking an unsafe abortion

    • The three delays
    • Seeking help
    • Getting to help
    • Waiting for help
  11. Calculating the crude death rate
    • Total Deaths in a year
    • ---------------------------- X 1,000
    • Average Total Population in that year


    • Azerbaijan
    • 76,795 deaths
    • 7,868,385 population
    • CDR: 9.76 deaths per 1,000 population
  12. Calculating the age specific death rates
    • Number of deaths people ages x to x+5
    • -------------------------------------------------
    • Average total population ages x to x+5

    X 1,000
  14. compare and contrast fertility and fecundity
    • Fertility
    • refers to actual reproductive behavior
    • Number of births that occur to an individual or a population

    • Fecundity
    • refers to the biological capacity for reproduction
    • Physiological ability of individuals/couples to have children

    • Age-related
    • Women: menarche to menopause
    • Fecundity peaks in the twenties and then declines
    • Good diet and physical care

    • Men: puberty into adulthood
    • Fecundity peaks in young adulthood and then declines
  15. describe the factors that affect fertility (intermediate variables; proximate determinants
    Intermediate Variablles

    • Fecundity
    • Ability to have intercourse
    • Ability to conceive
    • Ability to carry a pregnancy to term

    • Birth control
    • Use of contraceptives
    • Sterilization
    • Induced abortion
    • (induced abortion meaning knowing you want an abortion in advance)
    • (spontaneous abortion would mean a miscarage)

    • Sexual unions
    • Formation & dissolution of unions
    • Age at first intercourse
    • Proportion of women who are married or in a union
    • Time spent outside a union
    • Frequency of intercourse
    • Abstinence
    • Temporary separations

    Proximate Determinants

    • Proportion of women married or in a sexual union
    • Percent of women using contraception
    • Proportion of women who are infecund
    • Level of induced abortion

    • you can sum up fertility amounts based on these four determinants
    • one might be the main force, one might be a combination; differs per country
    • middle two are developing world
    • in countries where concentration is not used, post pardon infecundity relates from breastfeeding
    • breastfeeding causes the body to be less able to become pregnant
  16. Can you compare and contrast completed fertility with fertility intentions?

    Why are these useful data to have?
    • Completed Fertility
    • "the end"

    EX) for women born in 1915, there fertility will be completed by 1958. During this time, there will be 2,400 births per 1,000 women.

    • Fertility Intentions
    • "the future"
    • ask women their plans for the future
    • different for each age cohort
  17. What is the fertility transition?
    The shift from high levels of fertility (natural) to low levels of fertility (fertility limitation)

    • ExplanationsThe Supply-Demand Framework
    • The Innovation/Diffusion and Cultural Perspective
    • Three Preconditions for Fertility Decline
  18. What are fertility differentials?
    • Where you live
    • Rural/Urban
    • Developing/Developed

    • Income/Education
    • High education or/and income = less fertility

    Race & ethnicity
  19. describe and explain some of the factors that influence differences in age specific fertility rates?
    • Education
    • Income
    • Contraceptive use
    • Infant mortality rates
    • Fecundity

    • More education = less kids
    • More income= less kids

    • Fecundity
    • Age of menarche has declined
    • Decline is correlated to increase BMI
  20. Measuring Fertility
  21. Crude Birth Rate
    • Number of Births
    • ---------------------- X 1,000
    • Total Mid-Year Population
  22. General Fertility Rate
    • B
    • ------------- X1,000
    • 30 F 15

    • B = number of live births
    • 30 F 15 = women in childbearing ages
    • start at age 15, go up 30 years...(ends up being to age 45)
    • GFR is about 4.5 times the CBR (if trying to get the answer quickly)
  23. Age Specific Fertility
    • nBx
    • ------- X 1,000
    • nFx

    • nBx = births occuring in a year to mothers aged x to x +n
    • nFx = total numer of women of that age
  24. Total Fertility Rate
    • Find Age Group Set
    • Find Age Group Set Cohort
    • Find Birth Rate for each Cohort
    • Add up Birth Rate for each Cohort
    • Multiply by amount of age cohort seperation


    • 10-14 300 Births 100,000 Population
    • 15-19 400 Births 110,000 Population
    • 20-24 500 Births 120,000 Population

    • 10-14 BR = 3
    • 15-19 BR = 3.6
    • 20-24 BR = 4.1

    3+3.6+4.1 = 10.7

    Difference in Age Cohorts is 5 years

    10.7 * 5 = 53.5 live births per 1,000 women

  25. Period Data
    a particular calendar year and represent a cross section of the population at one specific time
  26. Cohort Data
    tracks to the reproductive behavior of specific birth-year groups of women

    usually in 5 year periods
  27. Synthetic Measures
    treats period data as if it referred to a cohort

    • TFR is synthetic data
    • taking a particular period, and say that they are constant for all women
  29. describe and explain how family planning programs influence fertility patterns around the world?

    (Think about the specific examples discussed in class – India, USAID, population campaign posters.)
    • (PP) India
    • First to have a Family Planning Program
    • Established in 1951
    • Factors affecting family planning: early marriage, illiteracy, religious attitudes, misinformation about contraceptives
    • Emphasis on sterilization
    • Forced sterilization during Indira Gandhi’s leadership (1970’s) – highly problematic

    • (me) India
    • first pop policy in the world
    • 1951, became independent in 1947
    • from 350 to 1.2 billion from 47-11
    • In some states, the literacy rate for women was 2, 3, 4%
    • overall about 20%
    • still VERY low
    • Women were illiterate, didn't’t know what they were signing up for, and became sterilized
    • highly shameful
    • Men were illiterate, would show up to do it…who were 60 years old…yeah…
    • After doing something like this, something that is so shameful, the population stops trusting their gov and are now not willing to do ANYTHING to control pop

    • USAID
    • United States Agency for International DevelopmentFounded in 1961 during the Kennedy Administration as an independent federal agency (and has been since 1960)
    • Goals: to foster economic, development, & humanitarian assistance
    • The largest donor to family planning programs in the developing world
    • Results:About 20 million women depend on USAID-funded services
    • Smaller family size, improved health for women around the world
    • Family planning around the world has an American accent
    • Extensive demographic data have been collected from around the world for 30+years

    • Biggest planning for family is abortion:
    • Reagan, no money
    • Clinton, yes money
    • Bush, no money
    • Obama, yes money

    • USAID-supported programs in Bangladesh targeted the very poor
    • Results: TFR declined from 3.2 to 2.5 in less than 10 years
    • Increased contraceptive prevalence (62% in 2010 compared to 8% in the 1970’s)
    • Decreased under 5 mortality
    • Decreased maternal mortality (a 40% decline between 2001 & 2010)

    Population Campaign Posters

    Small Family

    • good clothes
    • SHOES
    • good house
    • good land
    • school books
    • happy

    Large Family

    • holes in clothes
    • NO SHOES
    • holes in house
    • degraded land
    • no school books
    • tired/overworked
  31. describe data sources for migration, including some of the problems associated with collecting migration data
    • Most data are collected at the national scale
    • Censuses, population registers
    • Medical records (common)
    • Where you live and have lived is important

    • Most data consider immigrants
    • Emigrant data are hard to come by

    • Data on illegal immigration can be very difficult to obtain
    • Speculative v. analytical methods (Durand & Massey 1992)

    Data collected tell us little about why individuals or groups migrate
  32. Primitive migration
    groups that migrate because they are unable to cope with natural forces related to their physical environment

    • Developing world
    • Change in environmental conditions
    • Farmer, drought strikes, move
  33. Forced Migration
    a movement of individuals or groups of people in which they participated without choice.

    the slave trade is an example.

    • Compulsory transfer of a group of people
    • Government impulse often
  34. Impelled Migration
    migration activated by the state or some other political or social institution which allows the migrant some degree of choice.

    Similar to forced, but the group retains some choice in whether or not to move
  35. Free Migration
    movement of people, individual or in families, acting on their own individual initiative and responsibility without official support of compulsion

    Individuals moved for economic betterment
  36. Mass Migration
    Entire communities move without full information
  37. Primitive, Forced, Impelled, Free, Mass can be either conservative or innovative...what does this mean?
    • Conservative
    • Whatever you did in your old place you are doing in your new place

    • Innovative
    • What you are doing in the new place is completely different than what you did in your old place
  38. Traditional Models of Migration

    (Push) Problem in the source, (Pull) opportunity in the destination

    • Pull factors are likely to be more significant
    • Economic reasons are most common
    • Intervening obstacles
    • *Cultural
    • *Social
    • *Etc
    • An implementing strategy; meaning you thought ahead about what you were doing
  39. Traditional Models of Migration

    • major cause of migration is economic
    • Long-distance migrants go to big cities
    • Most are adults (families rarely go)
  40. Economic Model of Migration

    Human-Capital Model
    • Early migration theories are rooted in neoclassical economics
    • neoclasical meaning thinking about cost/benifit
    • Migrants are rationale
    • Human Capital Theory
    • A cost-benefit analysis that considers wages and the personal/emotional costs of migration; personal/emotional meaning stress, leaving family, or benefits from work (high vacation or retirement)
    • Think about the various factors that play into a decision to migrate

    This theory is based on perfect information
  41. Structuration Theory of Migration
    • People act as individuals but do so w/in the confines of socio-economic structures
    • The migrant’s history and anticipated future are determinants
    • Multiple reasons will explain a move
    • Migration is a cultural event

    • Structures could be economic or political
    • structures guiding international migration
    • Migration seen as a cultural event

    For example, why are most oil workers in the MidEast Pilipino?
  42. Behavioral models of Migration
    • The individual decides what will best serve him/her
    • Emphasis on the individual – migration cannot be understood by large-scale aggregate data
    • Place utility (Wolpert): a composite of utilities

    Criticism of this model: Migration is generally viewed as good & apolitical

    • Focus is on the individual; not a group explanation
    • Placeutility meaning will this new place meet my needs? the needs are seen as utilities

    • Criticism
    • it has no political significance? (apolitical meaning not political)
    • migration is political though
  43. Individualistic models
    Humanist model

    • Like behavioral approaches, humanist models focus on the individual
    • Heavy focus on constructing individual stories of migration
    • Little to no generalizability

    Each individual persons migration will be unique
    Out migration rate: O/p * k

    In migration rate: I/p * k

    Net migration rate: I-O/p * k

    Gross migration rate: I+O/p * k


    • O is the number of out-migrants from an area
    • I is the number of in-migrants to an area
    • p is the average or mid-year population of an area
    • k is the constant, usually 100 or 1000
  45. Population, Environment, & Food
  46. compare & contrast exploitation philosophy with conservation philosophy

  47. I=PAT
    The impact of humans on the earth is a composite of population size, affluence, and available technology

    affluence meaning wealth
  48. How have human populations impacted air, water, & land quality
    • Air
    • smog
    • global warming

    • Industrial Smog (grey air)
    • found by fossil fuel consumption…mostly coal

    • Photochemical (Brown Air)
    • Chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight

    Most of STL is due to photochemical and NOT industrial; transportation with high temperatures

    • Climate change:
    • Normal v. human-induced changes

    • Greenhouse gases warm the atmosphere:
    • Human activity has lead to an increase in atmospheric concentrations and, as a result, an enhanced greenhouse effect

    • Over the past century:
    • Temperatures have warmed about 0.6oC (1.0oF)
    • Sea levels have risen 10-20 cm (4-8 in)
    • Other impacts: changes in precipitation, frequency of extreme weather conditions, & effects on plants & animals

    • Water
    • Two types: point source & non-point source
    • Eutrophication
    • a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth; This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms; This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems; The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as fish, which need the oxygen in the water to live.The bloom of algae may block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface; Some algae even produce toxins that are harmful to higher forms of life. This can cause problems along the food chain and affect any animal that feeds on them.

    • Land
    • deforestation
    • soil contamination
    • the waste stream

    • 11 billion tons of solid waste / year
    • Agriculture accounts for ½ of all waste
    • Industrial waste comprises about 1/3 of all waste
    • Municipal waste is about 15 percent of all waste

    Per person per day = 4.6 lbs (2 kg)

    That’s 2 times the amount of the average European or Japanese person and 5-10 times more than a person in the developing world
  49. What role does affluence play in resource consumption?

    Which is more problematic in thinking about resource use, abuse, & depletion:

    a very large but mostly poor population or a smaller population who is very wealthy?
    a smaller population who is very wealthy is going to be more problematic in thinking about resource abuse and depletion

    • the worlds richest 20% consume 76.6% of the worlds resources
    • the worlds middle 60% consume 21.9% of the worlds resources
    • the worlds poorest 20% consume 1.5% of the worlds resources

    The richest 5% of the population:

    • Consumes 45% of all meat & fish
    • Consumes 58% of total energy
    • Have 74% of all telephone lines
    • Consumes 84% of all paper
    • Owns 87% of the world’s vehicle fleet
  50. How has pollution been dealt with in the US?
    • Prevention v. control
    • Source reduction
    • Methods:
    • Sewage treatment & the importance of wetlands
    • Water remediation and bioremediation
    • Policies:
    • The Clean Air Act (1955, 1963, 1967, 1970, 1977, 1990)
    • The Clean Water Act (1972);
    • The Clean Water Restoration Act (2009)
  51. TERMS
  52. Etiology
    the study of the causes of diseases
  53. Circulation
    activities such as shopping, commuting, and touring because each of these activities begans and ends at a persons place of residence
  54. Natural Fertility
    The level of reproduction that exists in the absence of deliberate fertility control

    no birth control whatsoever
  55. Gross Reproduction Rate
    the average number of daughters a woman would bear if she passed through her entire reproductive life at the prevailing age specific fertility rates
  56. Net reproduction rate
    the average number of daughters a woman would bear if she passed through her lifetime from birth at the prevailing age specific fertility rates, adjusted for current female mortality rates
  57. Exogenous Factors
    factors that are outside of your control

  58. Endogenous Factors
    factors that are within your control

  59. Migration
    Any permanent move, usually long distance, that is disruptive
  60. Primary Migration
    Leaving birthplace for the first time
  61. Secondary Migration
    Neither moving in or out of their place of birth; already migrated at least once
  62. Myth of Return
    • Most migrations will say they plan on returning, and they don’t plan to stay, and for many reasons, they don’t actually go back home:
    • war still going on
    • marriage
    • not enough money
  63. Speculative Migrants
    Moving where you think there is work
  64. Contracted Migrants
    • Most likely
    • Move with a job in hand
    • You know you have a job once you get there
  65. Immigrant
    People entering a country

    Illegal is widely used as well as undocumented/irregular
  66. Refugee
    • Fleeing home country
    • Seeking entrance into a country

    a person who is outside the country of his nationality because he has or had well founded fear of persecution and is unable or, because of such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection fo the government
  67. Asylee
    Same as refugee, just geographic difference

    In the host country already
  68. Immigration
    the movement of peopl into one country from another
  69. Emigration
    the process of leaving one country to take up residence in another
  70. Mobility
    Geographic movement

    Not permanent, or short distance that doesnt’t count
  71. Intensification
    • Various techniques to increase yield
    • Fertilizers, pesticides
    • Breeding, genetic modifications
    • Since the 1960s, most gains = intensification
  72. Extensification
    • Increased yields by farming more land
    • The primary means of increasing productivity prior to 1960
    • Technological innovations allowed for greater extensification
Card Set
GEOG 300
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