Chapter 7 History

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  1. Who is considered to be the "restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith"?
  2. Who raised Mohammed after his parents died
    his grandfather until age 6, then his uncle Abu Talib
  3. Why was Mohammed's first marriage different for the time period?
    His wife was 20 years older than he was
  4. How old was Mohammed when he had his first revelation?
  5. Which angel revealed God's word to Mohammed?
  6. What did Mohammed do when he first received the revelations?
    kept it a secret except from a few of his closest friends and slaves
  7. What city did he begin preaching in?
  8. Why was it difficult for Mohammed to gain converts at first?
    Most considered him a poet that was slightly off
  9. What other faiths were practiced in his city?
    old Bedouin, Egyptian and Roman gods, Judaism
  10. What is the Hijira?
    the flight to Medina
  11. What are the Hadith?
    stories of the life of the prophet
  12. What city did Mohammed flee to?
  13. What was one of his first acts upon arriving there?
    to give permission to "go to war against the enemies of God"
  14. How did the residents receive him?
    They quickly made him leader, chief judge, and counselor of the city
  15. Who was his first decree probably aimed at? Why?
    Mecca, because the people there tried to kill him.
  16. What happened in 630-631 AD?
    Mecca was captured by the Muslims
  17. Who were the "Rightly Guided Caliphs"?
    They were religious leaders who were believed to be the representative of God on earth
  18. What were their names?
    Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali
  19. When does the split in Islam occur?
    661 AD
  20. What caused the split in Islam?
    disagreement as to who the leadership shoul've been given to
  21. What are the two primary sects of Islam? Which is larger?
    Sunni and Shi'ite; Sunni is larger
  22. What did the Mughals do?
    They expanded Islamic empire to the Indian Peninsula
  23. What are the Five Pillars of Faith?
    5 tenets every Muslim is expected to abide to and complete before they die
  24. Which of them is based on financial ability?
    the pilgrimage to Mecca
  25. Which may be suspended for age or health?
    The Sawm, or fasting
  26. How many holidays are on the Muslim Calendar?
  27. How is Muslim architecture different frmo that of Europe in the Middle Ages?
    Buildings were domed, open, and airy
  28. What Byzantine Church was later turned into a mosque?
    Hagia Sophia
  29. What are some of the distinguishing characteristics of Muslim art and architecture?
    use of bright colors, full of natural light and are open and airy
  30. How was Islam spread after the death of the Prophet?
    During the reigns of the first 4 caliphs (632-661), Islam spread rapidly

    Wars of expansion were also advanced by the devotion of the faithful to the concept of jihad

    Muslims are required to extend the faith to unbelievers and to defend Islam from attack
  31. What was the original meaning of "jihad"?
    "Walk in the way of God"
  32. What happened in 711 AD?
    The Muslims conquered the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain
  33. What is significant about the Battle of Tours?
    It stopped Islamic advance into Europe
  34. What name did the Muslims give that battle?
    The Battle of the Court
  35. Who was the leader of the Frankish Army at Tours?
    Charles Martel
  36. Which Caliphate initially captured Jersalem?
    the Umayyads
  37. Why is Jerusalem important to the Muslims?
    It is the holy land
  38. What were some problems faced by the Pope in Europe prior to the Crusades?
    • Power of the Church was declining
    • Regional Kings, nobles, etc. were fighting
    • peasants suffering from raids
  39. Who called the first Crusade?
    Pope Urban II
  40. What was the official reason given for calling the Crusade?
    The Muslims had burned the Church
  41. What did the Pope do that made it easier to get volunteers for hte Crusade?
    He issues that it is not a sin to kill an infidel.
  42. Who was Peter the Hermit?
    One who claimed God called him to lead a Crusade
  43. What happened after the Crusaders captured the city of Antioch?
    Crusaders slughtered most of the inhabitants without regard to their religion, and the Crescent Moon is torn off of the Muslim holy places and replaced with the Cross
  44. Who led the Crusader Army to the gates of Jerusalem?
    Raymond of Tolouse
  45. Who recaptured Jerusalem for the Muslims?
    Sal a-Din
  46. Which of the following Crusades came closest to retaking the Holy City?
    3rd Crusade
  47. Who led the Crusade?
    Richard the Lionheart
  48. What were some of the good things that came from the Crusades?
    the impetus for the Renaissance, the Age of Exploration, and the Enlightenment
  49. Why was Italy able to begin the Renaissance?
    They had acquired so much money during the time
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Chapter 7 History
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