Biology Final Lab

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Author:
Lily_Dee_Mee
ID:
120792
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Biology Final Lab
Updated:
2011-12-04 20:03:57
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10
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Description:
Sexual Reproduction; Human Inheritance; Blood Types; Punnett Squares
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  1. What happens in sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms?
    2 haploid gametes (1N) unite at fertilization to form a diploid zygote (2N). eventually into a diploid organism.
  2. What is the exception of reproductive cells dealing with the sexxual reproduction genetics?
    the reproductive cells ,unlike every other cell, does not contain the genetic info. present in the original zygote of multicellular organisms.
  3. What is the functional and structural subunit of each chromosome?
    a gene
  4. What does each gene contain?
    coded info. for making a specific protein.
  5. What determines the individuals observable physical traits?
    genes
  6. What is a trait? and exs.
    • a distinguishing characteristic or quality of ones personal nature
    • eye color, height, blood type.
  7. What is a phenotype?
    the observable traits of an organism.
  8. What is the biological term for a "matched" pair of chromosomes?
    homologous
  9. What are the different forms of a gene that occupy the same position on homolougous chromosomes?
    alleles
  10. Can more than 2 diff. alleles exist for a gene location?
    yes.
  11. What does it mean when an individual has 2 diff. alleles for a given trait?
    heterozygous for that individual's trait.
  12. What is the actual genetic makeup of an individual called?
    genotype
  13. What is known to be the phenotype that is influenced by 2 diff. alleles in the same individual?
    incomplete dominance or codominance.
  14. What is the "stronger" allele called?
    dominant allele
  15. What is the "weaker" allele called?
    recessive allele
  16. What is the inheritance of the recessive characteristic that is present when only both alleles are present?
    dominant-recessive inheritance
  17. Name some popular examples of human inheritance from DNA?
    Widow's Peak; Free ear lobes; Hitchhikers thumb
  18. What are the proteins in the plasma of blood called?
    antibodies
  19. What do the antibodies act upon certain proteins present on the red blood cell called? What does this cause?
    • antigens
    • the cells to clump together
  20. The inheritance of blood type is controlled by a gene that has three allels, what are they?
    • IA
    • IB
    • i
  21. What is the allele for the A antigen called?
    IA
  22. What is the allele for the B antigen called?
    IB
  23. What is the allele for the absence of an antigen called?
    i
  24. What is the blood type considered? phenotype or genotype.
    phenotype
  25. What is the genotype for the blood type O?
    ii
  26. What are the possible genotype for the blood type A?
    • IAi
    • IAIA
  27. What are the possible genotypes for the blood type B?
    • IBi
    • IBIB
  28. What is the genotype for the blood type AB?
    IAIB
  29. What is the blood type O considered to be?
    a universal donar.
  30. What is the blood type AB considered to be and what does this mean?
    • a universal reciptant
    • can take any blood type for transfusion.
    • dont have to check for infections
  31. What is a genetic cross made to examine the distribution of one specific set of alleles in the resulting offspring?
    monohybrid cross
  32. What are the plants called that are heterozygous for a single trait?
    monohybrids
  33. What do you use to determine the genotype of an organism that exhibits dominant features (phenotype)?
    test cross
  34. What does the test cross always involve?
    a homozygous recessive and the unknown genotype.
  35. What are the plants called that are heterozygous for two traits?
    dihybrids
  36. what do you use to determine if plants are dihybrids or not?
    dihybrid cross
  37. What is the normal ratio for a punnett square to determine the genotype and phenotype for one trait?
    1:2:1 ratio
  38. What ratio is produced when determining two traits for one genotype and phenotype?
    9:3:3:1
  39. What is the method called that is used to utilize to find the possible result of crosses?
    dichotomous or forked-line method

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