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- marriage b/t indivs who are, in some culturally important way, similar to each other.
- Partners who had shared settings before they met were more homogamous
situation selection –
people choose to enter some situations and avoid other situations.
complementary needs theory –
people are attracted to those who have different personality dispositions than they have (opposites attract).
attraction similarity theory –
people are attracted to those with similar personality traits.
assortative mating –
people are married to people similar to themselves.
Assortative couple: people in a relationship who have more in common than would a couple who met randomly.
Almost as important as mutual attraction and love are personality characteristics of:
- Dependable character (conscientiousness)
- Emotional stability (low neuroticism)
- Pleasing disposition (agreeableness)
People were especially happy with their relationships if they were married to partners who were high on the personality characteristics of:
- Agreeableness (especially high predictor)
- Emotional stability
- Openness (rather than conscientiousness from before)
violation of desire theory –
we predict people married to people who lack desired characteristics (dependability, emo stab) will more frequently dissolve the marriage.
Those who select mates high on agreeableness
- Emo stab
- And openness
- Show the greatest happiness with their marriage
Why people bully (psychoticism and antisocialism)
- Strong need for power
- Satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to other students
- Rewarded for their behavior (with material or psychological rewards)
Effects on targets of bullying
- Low self esteem
- Health problems – physical violence, or anxiety
- Poor grades
- Suicidal thoughts
tendency to feel tense worried or anxious during social interactions or when anticipating a social interaction.
the ways in which features of personality elicit reactions from others.
hostile attributional bias –
tendency to infer hostile intent on the part of others in the face of uncertain behavior from them.
Cycle of hostility
- hostile person assumes others will be hostile towards them;
- hostile person acts aggressively towards another;
- other acts aggressively back;
- hostile act has been anticipated and evoked by hostile person.
- strongest predictors of evoked anger and upset were disagreeableness and emotional instability scoring.
expectancy confirmation (self-fulfilling prophecy) –
people’s beliefs about the personality of others cause them to evoke actions in others consistent with initial beliefs.
social influences, all the ways people intentionally try to change behavior of others (may be good or bad).
personality predictors of tactics of manipulation
- dominant (extraverted) – coercion, demand, threats, cursing, criticizing
- submissive – hardball – lying, deceiving, self-deprecation, faking illness/frailty, violence
- agreeable – pleasure induction and reason./ considerate in use of collective resources.
- disagreeable – coercion and silent treatment.; selfish in use of collective resources.
- conscientious - reason
- unconscientious – criminal strategies
- emotionally unstable – regression: whining, pouting, sulking, crying
- openness - reason
- less openness – social comparison (you should do this because they do it)
- sex differences in tactics of manipulation
- men and women equally performed all the tactics of social influence
history of sex differences –
both the same in personality characteristics except aggression in which men were more aggressive than women.
minimalist position –
those who describe sex differences as small and inconsequential
maximalist position –
tend to argue that the magnitude of sex differences is comparable to the magnitude of many other effects in psychology and should not be trivialized.
Temperament in children sex differences
- inhibitory control showed largest sex difference at d=-.41; girls had more inhibitory control
- perceptural sensitivity – ability to detect subtle stimuli from the environment d=-.38
- surgency – behavior, high activity and impulsiveness d= .38
- physical aggressiveness d= .60; boys more physically aggressive than girls
- negative affectivity – anger difficulty amount of distress and sadness; no difference b/t sexes
sex differences in the five-factor model
- extraversion – small difference
- agreeableness – d= -.32; women more agreeable; trust and tender-mindedness women score insanely higher than men -.97
- aggressiveness d= .63 men more aggressive
- conscientiousness – sexes about the same
- emo stab. – d= -.49; women are moderately lower on emotional stability than men
- openness – no differences
global self esteem –
- the level of global regard that one has for the self as a person; y
- oung children showed slight difference in self esteem; as they grow older girls self esteem decreases but only to a max of d= .33;
- after getting older it becomes similar to men’s self esteem;
- women’s self esteem was lowest between 15 and 18 years;
pers traits involving working with objects, getting tasks completed, showing independence from others, displaying self-sufficiency.
expressing emotions, showing empathy, showing nurturance.
gender schemata –
cognitive orientations that lead indivs to process social info on the basis of sex-linked associations.
3 components of stereotypes
- cognitive – social categories
- affective – feeling hostile or warm toward someone in a particular category
- behavioral – discriminating against someone because they belong in a social category.
Theories of sex differences
- socialization theory
- social learning theory
- social role theory
- hormonal theories
- congenital adrenal hyperplasia
socialization theory –
boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents teachers and the media for being masculine and girls for being feminine.
social learning theory –
boys and girls also learn gendered behavior by observing others.
social role theory –
sex differences originate because men and women are distributed differently into different occupational and family roles.
hormonal theories –
argue that men and women differ not because of external social environment but because the sexes have different underlying hormones.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia –
overactive adrenal glad in girls which causes more interest in male goys, superiority in traditionally masculine skills and prefer masculine occupations.
adaptive problems –
need to be solved in order for an indiv to survive and reproduce.
subjective feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threatening.
interactional model -
suggests that objective events happen to people but personality factors determin the impact of those events by influencing people’s ability to cope.
transactional model –
personality 1) can influence coping 2) can influence how the person appraises or interprets the events and 3) can influence the events themselves.
health behavior model –
adds a factor to the transactional model; personality does not directly influence relationship b/t stress and illness.
predisposition model –
suggests that associations exist b/t pers and illness b/c of a third variable which is causing them both.
illness behavior model –
model of illness behavior.
illness behavior –
- action people take when they think they have an illness
- complaining to others about symptoms
- going to dr
- taking medicine
general adaptation syndrome GAS – follows a stage model
- alarm stage
- resistance stage
alarm stage –
fight or flight; release of hormones that prepare body for a challenge.
resistance stage –
body uses resources at an above average rate even though fight or flight has subsided.
exhaustion stage –
physiological resources are depleted; most susceptible to illness
acute stress –
sudden onset of demands and can cause physical pain I nthe body – headaches stomachaches etc.
episodic acute stress –
repeated episodes of acute stress (meeting a deadline each month)
traumatic stress –
massive amounts of acute stress.
chronic stress –
stress that doesn’t end.
additive effects –
effects of stress add up and accumulate in a person over time.
primary appraisal –
person perceives event is a threat to their goals.
secondary appraisal –
person concludes they don’t have the resources to meet the demand of the stress.
Attributional Style –
explaining the stress in terms of internality stability and globality.
dispositional optimism –
expectation that good events will be plentiful in the future.
self efficacy –
belief one can do the behaviors necessary to achieve a desired outcome; confidence in ones ability to perform actions needed to achieve a specific outcome.
optimistic bias –
most people underestimate their risks and rate their risk below what the true probability is. (e.g. catching a disease, getting into an accident)
Optimism and Physical Well- Being –
- optimism been shown to predict good health
- pessimists more likely to die earlier
- real difference b/t optimists and pessimists was frequency of accidents and violent deaths.
emotional inhibition –
- controlling your anxiety or hiding the fact youre disappointed.
- suppression of negative emotions associated with fewer positive emotions later in experiment.
- sevral brain areas associated with regulation of negative emotions mainly prefrontal cortex
- problems when emotional inhibition becomes chronic
- telling someone about a private aspect of yourself.
- the more participants talk about a tragedy the better their subsequent health.
Type A characteristics
- Competitive achievement motivation
- Time urgency
competitive achievement motivation –
like to work hard and achieve goals.
time urgency –
hate wasting time, always in a hurry, feel under pressure to get the most done in the least amount of time; often do 2 things at once
a response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress.
Emotion focused coping –
response aimed at reducing the emotional impact of the stressor.
Wishful thinking –
wishing exams would be canceled/ wishing an immediate end to the stress.
- when blocked from finishing goals may be aggressive
- strong predictor of heart disease.
being blocked from attaining goals./ aggravated when people talk slowly.
hardening or blocking of arteries; shortage of blood leads to heart attack.
building blocks of personality disorders
- extremes on either end of specific trait dimensions
- cognition is skewed: mental activity involved in perceiving, interpreting, and planning.
- distortion of the perception of others, altered social cognition
- unstable self concept
- deficits in empathy
pattern of behavior or experience that is distressing and painful to the person that leds to disability or impairment in important life domains.
abnormal psyc –
study of various mental disorders.
What is abnormal?
- behaviors that society deems unacceptable
- based on what society tolerates
- psychopathology – study of mental disorders
What is a personality disorder?
- an enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from the expectations of the indivs culture.
- causes distress and dysfunction
categorical view –
person has a disorder or doesn’t
dimensional view –
disorders are continuums ranging from normality at one end to severe disability or disturbance at the other.
Causes of personality disorders
- research is mostly correlational
- impossible to have a “disorder” group and a “no disorder” group
- correlational research cant pin down causal direction of relationships that are identified.
- have to be comfortable with idea that personality abnormalities have multiple causes.
Borderline personality disorder
- Instability of relationships, emotions, and self-image
- Fears of abandonment
- Proneness to self-harm
- Strong emotions-emotional storms
- Difference b/t BPD and bipolar is that manic and depressive moods in bipolar are long lasting whereas the mood swings in BPD are erratic, sudden, and immediate
- Conduct disorder (usually in childhood; may lead to antisocial)
- Violating the rights of others
- Breaking age related social norms
- Behaving aggressively or cruelly toward animals
- Threatening and intimidating younger children
- Destroying property
- Breaking rules
- conduct disorder does predict antisocial but ADHD does not
- Superficially charming and intelligent
- Unable to feel remorse or care for others
- And lacking in shame guilt and fear
- **Not a diagnosis, more of a research concept/construct to use as an adjective on people; more subjective.