Decreased sensitivity to a continued stimulus is called
Which of the following is an ascending pathway in the spinal cord?
A) lateral spinothalamic tract
Lesions on one side of the spinal cord cut the lateral spinothalamic tract and eliminate
pain sensations on the opposite side of the body below the level of injury.
In an ascending pathway, axons of the secondary neuron travel from the
C) spinal cord through the brainstem to the thalamus.
The portion of the dorsal column medial lemniscal tract that carries proprioceptive sensations from nerve endings in the feet and legs is the
C) fasciculus gracilis.
The fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus would help us
B) locate position of body parts.
Which of the following is mismatched?
C) spinoreticular tract - pain
Amputees frequently perceive pain in the amputated structure. This type of pain is called
B) phantom pain
The primary somatic sensory or general sensory area is located in
A) the postcentral gyrus
During brain surgery, the superior portion of the somatic sensory cortex of a patient isstimulated. The patient is most likely to
D) feel something touching his hand.
The conscious perception of cutaneous sensations occurs in the cerebral cortex, but these sensations are perceived as if they were on the surface of the body. This is called
The primary motor area
contains a larger area for control of the hand and fingers than for control of the arm and elbow.
Upper motor neurons
B) control skeletal muscles.
If you decide to "snap your fingers," the first neurons to be stimulated are the
B) premotor neurons.
Impulses that initiate motivation and forethought originate in
C) the prefrontal area.
If a person decided to jump over a chair, which of the following areas organizes the motor functions needed to carry out this action.
B) premotor area
Wernicke's area is necessary for
B) understanding and formulating coherent speech.
Damage to Wernicke's area would result in
If Broca's area is damaged, the result is
D) hesitant and distorted speech.
A patient has suffered a cerebral hemorrhage that has damaged the primary motor area of his right cerebral cortex. As a result the
E) patient cannot voluntarily move his left arm or leg.
Various areas of the cortex form functional pathways to conduct action potentials necessary to perform specific functions. Arrange the areas below in proper sequence to accomplish reading a poem aloud: 1. visual association area2. premotor area 3. Broca's area 4. primary motor area 5. Wernicke's area 6. visual cortex
B) 6, 1, 5, 3, 2, 4
Which of the cortical areas listed below is most likely to be stimulated first when repeating a word you just heard spoken?
D) primary auditory cortex
Which of the following statements concerning the descending pathways of the spinal cord is true?
C) Descending pathways consist of upper and lower motor neurons.
Which of the following is a descending pathway in the spinal cord?
B) corticospinal tract
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
C) rubrospinal tract - two-point discrimination
Indicate the order of each of the following in a descending pathway. 1. cerebral cortex 2. pyramids 3. cerebral peduncles 4. internal capsule
E) 1, 4, 3, 2
Two tracts found within the extrapyramidal system are the
C) vestibulospinal and rubrospinal.
The extrapyramidal system
B) maintains control of unconscious movements.
Which of the following result when the spinal cord is hemitransected (cut) on the left side? 1. loss of pain and thermal sensations below the injury on the left side 2. loss of pain and thermal sensations below the injury on the right side3. loss of fine touch and pressure sensations below the injury on the left side 4. loss of fine touch and pressure sensations below the injury on right side 5. loss of fine motor control on the right side below the injury 6. loss of fine motor control on the left side below the injury
C) 2, 3, 6
Lesion of the basal nuclei could cause
D) a slight shaking of the hands or head.
The cerebellum functions as a comparator. This means that the cerebellum compares
B) intended movements with actual movements.
A nurse is caring for a patient who exhibits the following symptoms: 1. inability to maintain balance while walking 2. normal intelligence 3. can initiate voluntary movements although they are somewhat uncoordinated. 4. decreased tone in the skeletal musclesThe patient is probably suffering from a condition that affected the
Which transmitter substance has been implicated in Parkinson's disease?
A) includes nuclei of cranial nerves II – XII. B) contains centers for several vital reflexes like heart rate and blood pressure. C) contains the reticular formation. D) contains nuclei for vomiting and sneezing reflexes.
E) all of the above
The right cerebral hemisphere
A) receives sensory input from the left side of the body.
Which of these activities is associated with the left cerebral hemisphere in most people?
B) mathematics and speech
Which of these activities is associated with the right cerebral hemisphere in most people?
C) painting a watercolor landscape
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
D) left cerebral hemisphere - spatial perception
The type of brain waves observed in an individual who is awake but in a quiet resting state with eyes closed are _____ waves.
Brain waves associated with information processing or problem solving are ____ waves.
In short-term memory,
D) when new information is presented, old information is eliminated.
Long-term memory may involve
C) a change in the shape of the neuron's cytoskeleton.
A patient with a lesion in the hippocampus may have decreased
D) declarative memory.
A baseball pitcher was hit on the side of the head by a line drive. When he was revived, he could not remember how many balls and strikes the batter had. This was because
B) he lost both sensory and short-term memory.
Which of the following is an example of procedural or reflexive memory?
B) riding a bicycle
Lesions of the limbic system might result in
A) a voracious appetite.
As the nervous system ages
D) reflexes become slower.
A) the part of the brain involved in the actual declarative memory
B) the largest of the cerebral commissures
B) corpus callosum
A) involved in fine and discriminative touch
B) respond to both light touch and superficial pressure
C) respond to deep cutaneous vibration and pressure
A) Meissner's corpuscles
B) Merkel's disks
C) Pacinian corpuscles
The conscious awareness of stimuli received by sensory receptors is called _________.
The sense of taste is an example of a _________ sense.
_________ are receptors associated with joints, tendons, and other connective tissue.
The simplest and most common type of sensory nerve endings are _________.
free nerve endings
The sensory speech area is __________ area.
The ability to detect simultaneous stimulation at two points on the skin is called __________.
The motor speech area is ___________ area.
Cutaneous sensations, although integrated within the cerebrum, are perceived as though they were on the surface of the skin. This is called ______________.