Internal Environment

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Author:
MarlieHopkins
ID:
120838
Filename:
Internal Environment
Updated:
2011-12-04 23:04:09
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Internal Environment
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Internal Environment
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  1. Homeostasis is valuable because cells can concentrate on the _.
    particular functions in which they are specialized.
  2. In negative feedback, sensors _ and pass this information to a controller.
    measure the state of the regulated variable
  3. In negative feedback, sensors measure the state of regulated variable and _.
    pass this information to a controller
  4. State of the regulated variable is measured by _.
    sensors
  5. Information about the regulated variable is passed to a controller by the _.
    sensor
  6. In negative feedback, controller _ witha predetermined setpoint.
    compares state of regulated variable
  7. In negative feedback, controller compares the state of the regulated variable with a _.
    predetermined setpoint
  8. State of regulated variable is compared with a predetermined setpoint by the _.
    controller
  9. If controller detects a difference between the setpoint and actual value of regulated variable, it issues a command to _.
    effectors
  10. In negative feedback, effectors change the regulated variable in the _.
    direction of the setpoint
  11. In negative feedback, the regulated variable is changed in the direction of the setpoint by _.
    effectors
  12. Core body temperature is regulated by negative feedback mechanisms that operate through a thermoregulatory center in the _.
    hypothalamus
  13. Part of the brain concerned almost exclusively with homeostatic controle is the _.
    hypothalamus
  14. Sensors for core body temperature are located in the brain, spinal cord, abdomen, and _.
    other internal body organs
  15. Sensors for core body temperature are located in the brain, spinal cord, _, and other internal body organs.
    abdomen
  16. Sensors for core body temperature are located in the brain, _, abdomen, and other internal body organs.
    spinal cord
  17. Sensors for core body temperature are located in the _, spinal cord, abdomen, and other internal body organs.
    brain
  18. Effectors for thermoregulation include cutaneous blood vessels, sweat glands, skeletal muscles, and the _.
    entire body energy metabolism
  19. Effectors for thermoregulation include cutaneous blood vessels, sweat glands, _, and the entire body energy metabolism.
    skeletal muscles
  20. Effectors for thermoregulation include cutaneous blood vessels, _, skeletal muscles, and the entire body energy metabolism.
    sweat glands
  21. Effectors for thermoregulation include _, sweat glands, skeletal muscles, and the entire body energy metabolism.
    cutaneous blood vessels
  22. Cold exposure first _.
    increases muscle tone
  23. Second means of increasing heat production is a response of the _ branch of the autonomic nervous system.
    sympathetic
  24. Pyrogens are released by _.
    damaged tissues
  25. Pyrogens are produced by the _.
    immune system
  26. Pyrogens are derived from the _.
    infectious agents
  27. If temperature falls below the new setpoint, the hypothalamus defends it by increasing _.
    shivering
  28. If the temperature rises above the new setpoint, the hypothalamus initiates _.
    sweating
  29. Diffusion is movement of a substance due to the _ movement of its individual particles.
    random
  30. Individual motion of solute particles is _ and _.
    • *constant
    • *random
  31. Net movement occurs only if there is a _.
    concentration gradient
  32. Net movement by diffusion occurs from regions of _ to regions of _.
    • *higher concentrations
    • *lower concentrations
  33. Key factors that determine the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion are distance, cross-sectional area, diffusion coefficient, and the _.
    magnitude of the concentration gradient
  34. Key factors that determine the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion are distance, cross-sectional area, _, and the magnitude of the concentration gradient.
    diffusion coefficient
  35. Key factors that determine the rate of net movement of a substanceby diffusion are distance, _, diffusion coefficient, and the magnitude of the concentration gradient.
    cross-sectional area
  36. Key factors that determine the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion are _, cross-sectional area, diffusion coefficient, and the magnitude of the concentration gradient.
    distance
  37. Greater distances _ the rate of net movement.
    reduce
  38. Rate of net movement is reduced by _ distances.
    greater
  39. Greater the cross-sectional area available, the _ the rate of diffusion.
    greater
  40. Smaller particles diffuse _ than larger ones.
    faster
  41. Driving force for net movement by diffusion is the _.
    concentration gradient
  42. Concentration gradient provides the driving force for net movement by _.
    diffusion
  43. Net movement of substances by diffusion is said to be a _ process.
    passive transport
  44. Passive transport process in net movement of substances by _.
    diffusion
  45. Diffusion of an uncharged substance involves the form of _ energy.
    chemical
  46. When diffusing particles are ions, _ energy is involved.
    electrical potential
  47. Chemical energy is involved in the diffusion of _ substance.
    uncharged
  48. Electrical potential energy involves diffusing particles that are _.
    ions
  49. Charge separation that can be measured as an electrical voltage between two chambers is called a _.
    diffusion potential
  50. Diffusion potential is the charge separation that can be measured as _ between the two chambers.
    electrical voltage
  51. Diffusion potential is the _ that can be measured as an electrical voltage between two chambers.
    charge separation
  52. Magnitude of the equiliberium potential (E) is directly related to the magnitude of the concentration, since one must _.
    balance the other
  53. Magnitude of the equilibrium potential (E) is directly related to the magnitude of the _, since one must balance the other.
    concentration gradient
  54. Directly related to the magnitude of the concentration gradient is the magnitude of the _.
    equilibrium potential (E)
  55. Mathematical relationship between electrical and chemical energy is described by the _.
    Nernst equation
  56. Nernst equation is the mathematical relationship between _ and _.
    electrical and chemical energy
  57. Resting potential is a difference in electrical charge between the _ and _ sides of the plasma membrane.
    • *cytoplasmic
    • *extracellular
  58. Resting potential is the _ in electrical charge between the cytoplasimc and extracellular sides of the plasma membrane.
    difference
  59. Difference in electrical charge between the cytoplasmic and extracellular sides of the plasma membrane is _.
    resting potential
  60. Membrane is polarized when the number of positive charges on the outside _ the number of negative charges on the inside.
    equal
  61. Same number of positive charges on the outside as negative charges on the inside, the cell is _.
    polarized
  62. Decrease in number of ion pairs associated with the membrane makes the membrane _.
    less inside negative
  63. Cell is less inside negative when _ in the number of ion pairs.
    there is a decrease
  64. Membrane that is less inside negative is termed _.
    depolarization
  65. Depolarization is when the cell is _.
    less inside negative
  66. Increase in the number of ion pairs makes the cell _.
    more inside negative
  67. Cell is more inside negative is when there is _ in number of ion pairs.
    increase
  68. Cell that is more inside negative is termed _.
    hyperpolarization
  69. Hyperpolarization is when the cell is _.
    more inside negative
  70. Strength of an ionic gradient is determined by the concentration gradient and the _.
    relative permeability
  71. Strength of an ionic gradient is determined by the _ and the relative permeability.
    concentration gradient
  72. Three major mechanisms by which solutes can move between the interior and exterior of cells is by _, _, and _.
    • *diffusion
    • *carrier-mediated transport
    • *endocytosis and exocytosis
  73. Transport proteins provide _.
    alternate routes through the membrane
  74. Alternate routes through the membrane are provided by _.
    transport proteins
  75. Two forms of transport proteins are _ and _.
    • *channels
    • *carriers
  76. Channels are _ proteins.
    transport
  77. Carriers are _ proteins.
    transport
  78. Voltage-gated channels respond to _.
    changes in membrane potential.
  79. Channels that respond to changes in membrane potential are _.
    voltage-gated channels
  80. Ligand-gated channels respond to _.
    binding of messenger substances.
  81. Channel that responds to binding of messenger substances from inside or outside the cell is _.
    ligand-gated channel
  82. Channel-mediated movement is _.
    diffusion-like
  83. Transport protein that is diffusion-like is _.
    channel protein
  84. Carriers are proteins that _.
    bind molecule on one side of membrane and release on the opposite side of the membrane.
  85. Transport protein that binds individual solute molecues on one side of the membrane and release the solute on the opposite side of the membrane is _.
    carrier
  86. Multiple solutes of different types that bind to the carrier before all are translocated is called _ or _.
    • *cotransport
    • *symport
  87. Cotransport or symport is when _ bind to the carrier before all are translocated.
    multiple solutes of different types
  88. One solute exchanged for another is a process of _ or _.
    • *exchange
    • *antiport
  89. Exchange or antiport is when _.
    one solute is exchanged for another.
  90. Active transport involves _.
    extra energy from the cell's own energy reserves
  91. Transport that involves expenditure of extra energy from the cell's own energy reserves is _.
    active transport
  92. In primary active transport, the carrier derives its energy from _.
    ATP
  93. Carrier derives its energy from ATP in _ transport.
    primary active transport
  94. Most common form of transport ATPase is the _ or _.
    • *Na+/K+ ATPase
    • *Na+/K+ pump
  95. Secondary active transport processes are driven by a transmembrane gradient of _.
    some other solute
  96. Transport that is driven by a transmembrane gradient of some other solute is _.
    secondary active transport
  97. Osmosis is diffusive movement of water _.
    down a concentration gradient
  98. Osmosis is diffusive movement of _ down a water concentration gradient.
    water
  99. Diffusive movement of water down a water concentration gradient is _.
    osmosis
  100. Solutions with concentration of 300 mOsmoles/liter are said to be _.
    isotonic
  101. Isotonic solutions have a concentration of _.
    300 mOsmoles/liter
  102. Hypotonic solution contains a _ concentration of impermeant solute than normal cytoplasm.
    lower
  103. Solution that contains a lower concentration of impermeant solute than normal cytoplasm is _.
    hypotonic
  104. Hypertonic solution contains a _ impermeant solute concentration than normal cytoplasm.
    higher
  105. Solution that contains a higher concentration of impermeant solute than normal cytoplasm is _.
    hypertonic
  106. Hypotonic solution causes cells to _.
    swell
  107. Solution that causes cells to swell is _.
    hypotonic
  108. Hypertonic solution causes cells to _.
    shrink
  109. Solution that causes cells to shrink is _.
    hypertonic
  110. Two main components of ECF is _ and _.
    • *interstitial fluid
    • *blood plasma

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