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2011-12-04 23:27:18
Endocrine system

Endocrine system
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  1. Endocrine system
    • Works with Nervous system (even faster) to maintain homeostasis in terms of the internal environment of the body
    • Main connection=pituitary gland of endocrine system connected to hypothalmus(located in sphenoid) of Nervous System within the brain (ES & NS physically connect here)
  2. Function of Endocrine System and Nervous System
    to control and coordinate the body's internal environment. NS affected by what you think.
  3. Endocrine system made up of:
    1.endocrine glands-secrete hormone directly into bloodstream

    2.certain body tissues

    both secret hormones
  4. Hormones are:
    chemical messengers, protein or steroid (steroid means fatlike/estrogen and female hormones)that have specific regulatory effects on certain other cells or organs (called target tissues) shape of hormone holds message
  5. Endocrine glands are ductless
    hormones go directly into bloodstream
  6. Hormones can have:
    • 1.General effect on all body tissues growth, thyroid, insulin
    • 2.affect target tissues to stimulate some change in metabolic function
    • specific thyroid-stimulating, adrenocorticotropic
  7. Regulation of hormone secretion is by:
    • Negative feedback mechanism which is:
    • The hormone itself (or the result of its action)controls further hormone secretion.
    • each endocrine gland tends to oversecrete its hormone,exerting more effect on the target tissue.When the target tissue becomes too active,there is a negative effect on the endocrine gland, which then decreases its secretory activity.
  8. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Growth Hormone(GH)-promotes growth of all body tissues
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)-tells thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH)-tells adrenal cortex to produce adrenal cortex hormones
    • Prolactin(PRL)-stimulates milk secretion by the mammary glands of breasts
    • Gonadotropic-tells male or female gonads to produce their hormones (testosterone or estrogen)
  9. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Low ADH=more urine
    • High ADH=less urine
    • Oxytocin-contracts the muscles of the uterus, causes the mammory glands to eject milk
  10. Hormones Produced by the hypothalmus:
    ADH & Oxytocin, they're stored until they need to be released into the bloodstream
  11. Thyroid gland hormones
    • T3 &T4:regulate body metabolism by increasing it.Metabolism-all reactions occuring within cells that maintain life.
    • T3=triiodothyronine
    • T4=Thyoxine
    • Calcitonin-decreases calcium level in the blood
    • TSH=thyroid stimulating hormone-tells thyroid to produce thyroid hormones

  12. Parathyroid Gland
    2-10 glands is normal, increases calcium level in the blood, gets calcium from the bonescalcium helps with blood clotting, normal muscle function & nerve impulses
  13. Adrenal Medulla
    (inner layer) Epinephrine & norepinephrine: active in times of stress, initiates "fight or flight" response, P goes up BP goes up, prepares for an emergency
  14. Adrenal glands
    two glands in one-adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex
  15. Pancreatic Islets
    • Insulin: needed for transport of glucose into cells needed to metabolize glucose & other foods; end result is to lower blood sugar
    • Glucagon:stimulates liver to release glucose, end result is to raise blood sugar
    • High insulin=low blood sugar
    • Low insulin=high blood sugar
  16. Testes
    testosterone: masculinizing hormone; G & D of testes, penis, development of 2ndary sexual organs
  17. Ovaries
    • Estrogens; feminizing hormone;G & D of ovaries, uterus & fallopian tubes; development of 2ndary sexual characteristics
    • Progesterone: pregnancy hormone; prepares the uterus for pregnancy, helps maintain pregnancy.
  18. Thymus
    Thymosin: stimulates T-cell formation
  19. Pineal gland
    • Melatonin:regulates sleep/wake cycles, mood, sexual development
    • Light decreases it/Darkness increases it & causes sleepiness
    • Can cause depression if too much in system
  20. Other hormones
    • prostoglandins-group of local hormones in tissues in body-inflammatory
    • stress-neurotransmitters & hormones released during stressful events
    • aging/pancreas-adult onset diabetes (less insulin)
    • Thyroid-less thyroid hormone=sluggish metabolism
    • pituitary-decreased bone mass