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4 petals and 6 stamens (4 tall & 2 short)
Silique with clear middle membrane
Inflorescence always a raceme spiraling around the axis stalk
Brassicaceae- Mustard Family
Ex. Genera: Brassica (Mustard), Erysimum (Wall Flower), Lepidium (Pepperweed)
Square stalks, Simple, Opposite leaves, Often aromatic
5 fused petals, 2 up and 3 down, Irregular flowers, 4 stamens, 1 pair longer
Fruit a capsule with 4 nutlets
Lamiaceae- Mint Family
Ex. Genera: Agastache (Giant hyssop), Marrubium (Horehound), Coleus, Rosmarinus (Rosemary)
Compound umbels, usually with hollow flower stalks
5 petals, 5 stamens & a 2 celled ovary
Apiaceae- Parsley Family
Ex. Genera: Cicuta (Water hemlock), Apium (Celery), Daucus (Wild carrot)
Flower with banner, wings and keel. Pea-like pods, often with pinnate leaves.
Fabaceae- Pea Family
Ex. Genera: Lotus (Trefoil), Pisum (Garden pea), Glycine (Soybean)
Flowers with parts in 3's. Sepals and petals identical.
Parallel leaf veins.
6 stamens some may lack anthers.
Stigma 3 parted
Liliaceae- Lily Family
Ex. Genera: Hemerocallis (Day lily), Lilium (Lily), Calochortus (Mariposa lily)
5 seperate petals and a column of stamens. Mucilaginous texture in leaves when crushed.
Malvaceae- Mallow Family
Ex. Genera: Gossypium (Cotton), Sphaeralcea (Globe mallow), Abelmoschus (Okra)
Composite flowers in disk-like heads.
Disk flowers have 5 fused petals, Ray flower's petals are fused and lay off to one side.
May have only disk, only ray or both
Asteraceae- Aster Family
Ex. Genera: Taraxacum (Dandelion), Helianthus (Sunflower), Solidago (Goldenrod)
Horizontal branching stems above or below ground.
Send up erect shoots of up to a foot tall that produce unisexual spores.
Lycopodiaceae- Club Moss Family
Ex. Genera: Lycopodium (Club moss)
Small leaves arranged in four rows. Leaves have vestigial scale-like appendage.
Produces both male and females spores which are fertilized on the plant before dropping.
Selaginellaceae- Spike Moss Family
Ex. Genera: Selaginella (Resurrection plant)
Cones and needles
One genera has 1-5 needles wrapped in a thin membrane called a folicle
One genera is usually bright green with deciduous needles arranged in a spiral at the branch buds
One genera usually has sharp, pointed needles
One genera has soft, "furry" needles
One genera has tridents on the cones
One genera has short flat, blunt needles attached to a small stem
Pinaceae- Pine Family
Ex. Genera: Pinus (Pine), Abies (Fir), Larix (Tamarack), Picea (Spruce), Pseudotsuga (Douglas fir), Tsuga (Hemlock)
Trees with aromatic wood with small scaly leaves and seperate male and female cones.
Cupressaceae- Cypress or Cedar Family
Ex. Genera: Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis,
Very tall and semi-deciduous, though appearing evergreen.
Ex: Sequoias, Redwoods etc.
Taxodiaceae- Bald Cypress Family
Conifer-like branches and red or green berry like fruit, called aril.
Taxaceae- Yew Family
Ephedraceae- Mormon Tea Family
Trees with opposite leaves and winged seeds in pairs
Aceraceae- Maple Family
Trees with opposite palmate leaves and large seeds with an "eye"
Aesculaceae- Buckeye Family
Monocot flowers with parts in threes and numerous simple pistils
Alismataceae- Arrowhead Family
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