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a statement by a surety company that obligates the surety compnay to complete construction on the project should the contractor default on his or her obligations.
a performance bond is usually paid by the owner and this usually included in the amount of the construction price.
four major parts of the project maunal
- 1. bidding requirements
- 2. parts of the contract itself (agree. btwn owner and contractor, bond forms, etc.
- 3. gen and supp conditions of the contract
- 4. specificiations
what are in the technical specs
they describe the quality of the materials and workmanship along with general reqs for the execution of the work, standards, and other items that are more appropriately described in written rather than graphic form.
two different types of specifications
- prescriptive specs (closed specifications)
- perfofrmance specs (open specsifications)
what are closed specifications (prescriptive specs)
they specifiy brand names, tell the contractor exactly what product or material to use.
what are open specifications (performance specs)
they tell what results the final construction assembly should achieve, but give the contractor some choice in how they will be achieved.
this allows the contractor to find the lowest price and encourages competive bidding
types of prescriptive (closed) specifications
- proprietary specifications -
- -are the most restructive (call out manufactures product)
- -give architect complete control over what is installed
- -easier to write
- -do not allow for competive bidding
- -the specifier is responsible for calling out products that meet code, are within budget and are tech correct
- base bid with alternates
- - calls out a product but allows for a substitution of other products thae the contract thinks are equal
- -two variations are base bid with approved equal and base bid with 3 diff manufactures are listed (usually used for public projects)
base bid with 3 alternatives puts the burden of approval on the
becuase the architect has to research all three before putting into specs to make sure that they are equal.
base bid alternative with approved equal puts the burden of approval on the
it give the contractor freedom for looking for lower-priced alts but the contractor is the one that need to find the alts.
different variations of performance type specifications
- descriptive specification
- reference standard specification
- pure performance specification
- true performance specification
what is a reference standard specification
- type of a performance type specification
- describes a material, product, or process based on requirements set by authority or test method
pure performance specification
- type of a performance type specification
- statement setting criteria and results required of the item being specified, which can be verified by measurement, test evaluation that the final result meets the final criteria
true performance specification
- type of a performance type specification
- often used for construction components when the specifier whats to encourage new ways of achieving a particular end
- type of performance type spec
- give detailed written requirements for the material or product and the workmanship required for its fabrication and installation.
- does not mention trade names
a phrase that shifts responsibility to the contractor to someone else in a broad, general way.
- Procurement and contracting Requirements
- division covers:
- req for bidding
- instruction to bidders
- info avail to bidders
- bid forms
- contract btwn owner and contractor
- bonds and certificates
- general conditions of the contract
- supp conditions
- division covers:
- reqs that are applicale to the entire project
- summary of the work
- how pricing and payment is handled
- value analysis
- contract modsification procedures
- unit prices
- submittal procedures
- temp facilities at the job site
- product substitution
- owner furnished items
- special execution reqs
- final cleaning and protection of the work
- Existing conditions
- section is used to specifiy
- site remediation
- site decontamination
- subsurface investigation
- selective demo
- division covers all aspects of concrete
- cast in place
- concrete restoration and cleaning
- concrete block
- terra cotta
- simulated masonry
- glass block
- masonary restoration and cleaning
- structural steel
- ornamental metals
- metal fabrication (stairs, handrails, gratings, etc)
- expansion joint covers
- metal restoration and cleaning
light guage metal framing is located in div 09 (finishes for partitions)
- Woods, plastics, composites
- structural wood framing
- rough carpentary
- architectural wood work
- wood plastic and composites restoration and cleaning
manufactured casework is in div 12 (furnishings)
Thermal and moisture protection
- vapor retarders
- air barriers
- roof tiles
- membrane roofing
- joint sealants
- gravel stops
- smoke vents
- smoke protection
- Doors and windows
- curtain walls
- finish materials
- gyp bd. (including metal framing)
- floor and wall tile
- accoustical ceiling and decorative ceiling
- acoustical treatments
- paints and other coatings
- visual displays
- toilet compartments
- wall and corner guards
- prebuilt fireplaces
- storage shelfing
- ecterior protection
- toilet and bath accessories
- architectural equipment
- teller and security equip
- library equipment
- musical equip
- loading dock equip
- blah blah blah
- system furniture
- window treatments
- multiple seating
- interior plants
- Special Construction
- special purpose rooms
- seismic control
- raidation protection
- lighting protection
- pre engineered structures
- hot tubs and kennels
- Conveying Equipment
- moving walks
- integrated automation
- energy monitoring
- enviro control
- lighting control
Electronica Safety and security
- Earthwork (below grade work)
- exterior imporvements (pavements, fences, site furniture)
- utilities (sanitary piping, septic tanks, sub drainage)
construction change directive
a written order prepared by the architect directing a change in the work before the owner and contractor agree on an adjustment in contract cost, time or both.
minor changes in the work need the approval of the owner
- the architect may issue an oder for minor change (moving a door over 6" before it has been framed) without the approval of either the owner or contractor.
a construction change directive needs to be signed by who
architect and owner (not the contractor)
who approves a change order and who normially prepares it
- architect normally prepares a change order
who issues a certificate of substantial completion
Sometimes, octopuses eat their arms when they are under extreme stress.
is a banana a fruit or vegetable?
neither, it's a herb.
The average person spends ______ of their life on the toilet.
To escape the grip of a crocodile's jaws, push your thumbs into its ______ and it will let you go instantly.
When you combine a question mark (?) with an exclamation point (!), it’s called an
what is a Smoke Pencil Puffer Stick?
its is used to check for air inflitration on an already contstructed exterior wall system.
- check it at
what is a hepa filter
HEPA is an acronym for "high efficiency particulate air". Basically HEPA is a type of filter that can trap a large amount of very small particles.
Owners required insurance includes
- owners liability
- property (all risk)
- boiler and machinery
- loss of use insurance
architects required insurance includes
- general liability
- workers compensation
- professional liability
contractors required insurance includes
- workers compensation
- employers liability
- contractual liability
what is the difference between "general requirements" and "General Conditions"
general requirements describe the administrative procedures. it is part of CSI
general conditions describes contractural requiments (defines the work)
the contract documents create a contractural relationship between
owner and contractor
contract documents consist of
- agreement btwn owner and conractor
- conditions of the contract (gen, supp and special)
- the drawings
- the specs
THEY DO NOT INCLUDE BIDDING DOCUMENTS
bidding documents are not included in the
it is not the contractors responsibility to know that the contract documents are in accordance with building codes
although if the contract notices something they must notify the architect and owner in writing. if the contractor doesnt let the O or A know and goes on doing work the conractor assumes full responsibility (sandbaggin)
the contractor pays for
- building permits
- govt fees
- inspections necessary for the execution of the work
basically everything after the execution of the contract
what are record documents
marked up construction drawings and specifications and other documents how the project was built noting any changes in the conract documents.
shop drawings, samples and product data are not part of the contract documents
who is responsible for the removal of hazardous materials on a job site
if the contractor finds them he must sto work and report the problem to the owner
insurance and bonds are covered in
the general conditions of the contract
how long must the contractor carry insurance for
insurance must be maintained from the begging of work until the date of final payment
the amoutn of the owners property insurance must be for the full value of the work which is usually
the contract sum plus any modifications
claims can only be made for
(vs. consequential damages)
claim is one party seeking payment for relief in respects to the terms of the contract
while a claim is being resolved the owner must still make payments to the contractor
as well as the contractor, he must also continue working.
where can supplementary conditions be located?
- in general requirements of the specs
- in the owner contractor agreement
- in bidding requirements
- or in supp conditions
what are supplementary conditions?
conditions that can not be covered inthe general conditions of the contract. becuase each job must be customized to accomodate different clients.
special conditions vs supplementary conditions
- special conditions are unique to the project (only written once)
- supp conditions can be used several times and accomodate different clients.
how much typically is bid security?
5% of the eestimated cost of construction or the bid price
called a bid bond. can also be a certified check or cashiers check
what is a performance bond and who pays for it
its a statement from a surety saying that it will complete a project if a contractor defaults on his obligations. the performance bond is usualy paid for by the owner
labor and material payment bond
a bond guaranteing payment for labor and materials by a defaulting contractor. this bond is needed because a performance bond only ensures the completion of the contract (project).
you typically need to have both performance and labor and material bonds
after the award for bid what should the contractor submit to the architect
- -aia doc A305 - contractors qual statement
- -names of mojor persons or companies proposed to perform mojor portions of the work
- -names of manufacturers, products and the supplier of the principal items proposed for the project
- -designation of the work to be performed with the contractors own forces.
set of costs for certain portions of work based on individual quantities. when required they are usually listed on the bid form.
basic types of office organization
- 1. departmentalized
- 2. studio
- 3. small office
concept of privity
theoretically, the architect is portected from claims by parties with whom she does not have a direct contractural relationship with.
turnkey project delivery
something that ready for immediate use.
a type of project that is constructed by a developer and sold or turned over to a buyer in ready to use condidtion.
to hold harmless of any third party claim
in an event of a claim by the architect against the owner, the architect will not go after the assets of the owners members, offices, directors
if the owner wants the architect or the consultants to carry a higher limit of insurance that is typically carried in the industry the owner is responsible for the increased cost .
yes. its usually a reimbursable expense.
the term "project delivery method" refers to the way that relationships are structured amond the primary participants in the design and construction process
as a result the inital selection of a standard form agreement and general conditions for a particular project depends on the project delivery method to be used.
a CMc project is not design-award build becuase the owner awards the prime construction contract to the construction manager-constructor BEFORE the design and constrcution documents are completed.
once the project enters into the construction phase the project relationship mirrors the design-award-build project.
schedule of values
(progress payments for contractors)
breaks down the entire scope of work into categories which are assigned a dollar value
retainage of payment
portion of money deducted from each progress payment to the contractor and paid out at the end of the project.
protects owner from the contractor defaulting
liquidated damages vs. consequential damages
consequential damages are when money is lost as an indirect result of something.
liquidated damages are when there is a set amount of money determined when the contract is signed becuase it may be hard to know how much money was lost.
ex the jewlery store:suppose John agrees to lease a store-front to Mary, from which Mary intends to sell jewellery. If John breaches the contract by refusing to lease the store-front at the appointed time, it will be difficult to determine what profits Mary will have lost because the success of newly created small businesses is highly uncertain. This, therefore, would be an appropriate circumstance for Mary to insist upon a liquidated damages clause in case John fails to perform.
statute of repose
begins to run at the end of construction or whenever services were last provided.
vs. statute of limitations (limits the time that claims can be made against someone determined by state law)
pre bid conference
the goal is to provide the bidders with a clear and consistent understanding of the project requiremtents and scope.
provides and understanding of project procedures, requirements, due dates, and special characteristics.
- atendees are ususally:
- owner, conractor and mojor subs, architect and consultants
who typically prepares the agenda for the pre bid conference?
the architects PM and Contractors PM
why is change order pricing usually higher than bid pricing
due to the small quantity of materials involved and the out of sequence nature of the work.
Contractors dont usually provide cross checking and coordination services of the drawings durring the bid period.
an architects review of alternates on a bid should be condsidered an additional service
when should the last addendum be issued durring the bidding phase?
no less than 7 days prior to the bid date
whats the main purpose of having the contractor or CM involved in the design phases
to reduce RFI's and change orders durring construction
the right of the government to take ownership of privat property for the public good while paying fair market value compensation to the owner
The rate at which outdoor air replaces indoor air is described as
the air exchange rate
drawings are included in the project manual
they are only included in the bidding docs and the contract documents
the project manual consists of the bidding docs, contract forms, contract conditions and specifications
application for payment
certificate for payment
- application is what the contractor gives the architect
- certificate is what the architect gives the owner
who issues the final certificate of payment
does the contractor get interest on retainage?
what does enumerate mean
to catalog or list
when does the architects basic services end
when the final certificate of payment is submitted to the owner
compensible vs excusable delays
compensible the contractor gets $ and time compensation (usually the architects or owners fault)
excusable the contractor only gets time compensations (if there is out of the ordinary weather or labor disputes for example)
extra time in a critical path that doesnt effect time
critical path determines
wether or not something in a project has effected the project as a whole rather than just effecting specifi events
protruding objects can not extending into a path more than ___if the object is above _____
contractors need to supply_______along with their applications for payment
lien waver forms
with fixed or built in seating is provided in an accessible or common use area _____% but not less than _____ sesating must be accessible.
when does the retainage get released
at substaintial completion
minor construction errors
typically in a public bid a contractor will bid low and get most of the money and more back from change orders.
sucks because in public projects have to choose the low bid.