Inorganic Final '11

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catorresdiaz
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Inorganic Final '11
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2011-12-05 04:29:27
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  1. Dinitrogen monoxide (nitrous oxide, N2O) is:
    • a) a brown poisonous gass that is one of the chemicals involved in the production of photochemical smog.
    • b) a colorless gas that decomposes into nitrogen and oxygen upon heating.
    • c) a colorless gas used in the production of nitric acid.
    • d) the product of nitrogen fixation in the atmosphere.
    • e) a colorless gas used in the manufacture of explosives.
  2. Which of the following contains a tetrahedral arrangement of phosphorus atoms?
    • a) P4O6
    • b) P4
    • c) P4O10
    • d) A and C
    • e) All of the above
  3. Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are both powerful oxidizing agents because:
    • a) the central elements (N and S) are in high oxidation states.
    • b) the central elements (N and S) have low oxidation states.
    • c) the elements nitrogen and sulfur are very stable.
    • d) both compounds can be obtained in highly concentrated forms.
    • e) more information would have to be given to answer the question.
  4. The chemical formula for the superoxide ion is:
    • a) O-
    • b) O22-
    • c) O2-
    • d) O3-
    • e) O2-
  5. The halogens are:
    • a) strong acids
    • b) oxidizing agents
    • c) reducing agents
    • d) strong bases
    • e) not very reactive
  6. Which of the nitrogen oxides has the lowest oxidation number?
    • a) nitrous oxide
    • b) nitric oxide
    • c) nitrogen dioxide
    • d) none of the above
  7. Which of the halogens is important to living organisms and cooking utensils?
    • a) iodine
    • b) bromine
    • c) chlorine
    • d) fluorine
  8. What do nitrogen and phosphorus not have in common?
    • a) as gaseous compounds, both are used as anesthetics.
    • b) both are found in organic molecules such as DNA and RNA.
    • c) both are used for explosives.
    • d) none of the above.
  9. Which of the following elements is a liquid at atmospheric temperature and pressure?
    • a) iodine
    • b) carbon
    • c) surfur
    • d) bromine
    • e) fluorine
  10. When copper is treated with dilute nitric acid, the nitric acid is reduce to:
    • a) N2
    • b) NH4+
    • c) NO3-
    • d) NO
  11. The reaction of PCl3 with water produces:
    • a) Cl2
    • b) H3PO3
    • c) H3PO4
    • d) PCl5
  12. Which of the following are allotropes of phosphorous?
    I) P4
    II) P4O6
    III) P4O10
    IV) (P4)n
    • a) I and III
    • b) II and III
    • c) I and II
    • d) III and IV
    • e) I and IV
  13. Which of the following is the world's most important industrial chemical?
    • a) H2SO4
    • b) H3PO4
    • c) HClO3
    • d) H2SO3
    • e) HNO3
  14. Sodium hypochlorite is used:
    • a) as an oxidizer in rocket fuels.
    • b) in the manufacture of steel.
    • c) as a bleaching agent.
    • d) in the chemical analysis of agricultural pesticides.
    • e) as an insecticide.
  15. The chlor-alkali process produces chlorine, Cl2 (g), in large quantities. What other industrially important substances are also produced in the chlor-alkali process?
    • a) NaOH and O2
    • b) Na and H2
    • c) H2 and O2
    • d) NaOH and H2
    • e) Na and O2
  16. Arsenic trichloride with water
    AsCl3(l) + 3H2O(l) ----> H3AsO3(aq) + 3HCl(g)
  17. Magnesium with dinitrogen
    3Mg(s) + N2(g) ----> Mg3N2(s)
  18. Ammonia with excess chlorine
    NH3(g) + 3Cl2(g) ----> NCl3(l) + 3HCl(g)
  19. Methane with stream
    CH4(g) + H2O(g) ----> CO(g) +3H2(g)
  20. Hydrazine and oxygen
    N2H4(l) + O2(g) ----> N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
  21. Heating a solution of ammonium nitrate
    NH4NO3(aq) ----> N2O(g) + 2H2O (l)
  22. Sodium hydroxide solution with dinitrogen trioxide
    2NaOH(aq) + N2O3(aq) ----> 2NaNO2(aq) + H2O(l)
  23. Heating sodium nitrate
    2NaNO3(s) ----> 2NaNO2(s) + O2(g)
  24. Heating tetraphosphorus decaoxide with carbon
    P4O10(g) + C(s) ----> P4(g) + 10CO (g)
  25. Finely divided iron with dioxygen
    2Fe(s) + 3O2(g) ----> 2Fe2O3(s)
  26. Solid barium sulfide with trioxygen
    BaS(s) + 4O3(s) ----> BaSO4(s) + 4O2(g)
  27. Solid barium dioxide with water
    BaO2(s) + 2H2O(l) ----> Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2O2(aq)
  28. Potassium hydroxide solution with carbon dioxide
    • 2KOH(aq) + CO2(g) ----> K2CO3(aq) + H2O (l)
    • K2CO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) ----> 2KHCO3(aq)
  29. Sodium sulfide solution with dilute sulfuric acid
    Na2S(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -----> Na2SO4(aq) + H2S(g)
  30. Sodium sulfite solution with cyclo-octasulfur
    Na2SO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -----> Na2SO4(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O (l)
  31. Uranium (IV) oxide with hydrogen fluoride
    UO2(s) + 4HF(g) ----> UF4(s) + 2H2O(l)
  32. Calcium fluoride with concentrated sulfuric acid
    CaF2(s) + H2SO4(l) ----> 2HF(g) + CaSO4(s)
  33. Liquid sulfur tetrachloride with water
    SCl4(l) + 2H2O(l) -----> SO2(g) + 4HCl(g)
  34. Aqueous dichlorine and hot sodium hydroxide solution
    3Cl2(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) ----> NaClO3(aq) + 5NaCl(s) + 3H2O(l)
  35. Diiodine with difluorine in a 1:5 mole ratio
    I2(s) + 5F2(g) -----> 2IF5(s)
  36. Bromine trichloride and water
    BrCl3(l) + 2H2O(l) ----> 3HCl (aq) + HBrO2(aq)
  37. Contrast the behavior of nitrogen and carbon by comparing the properties of:
    a) methane and ammonia;
    b) ethane and hydrazine
    Difference in boiling points; different acid-base properties; difference in their combustions.
  38. Why is dinitrogen very stable?
    Yet why is dinitrogen not always the product during redox reactions involving nitrogen compounds.
    • a) Nitrogen has a very strong nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond.
    • b) Kinetic factors can lead to other products.
  39. Nitrogen trifluoride boils at -129°C, whereas ammonia oils at -33°C. Account for the difference in these values.
    Hydrogen bonding in ammonia molecules.
  40. Draw the shape of each of the following molecules:
    a) dinitrogen oxide;
    b) dinitrogen tetroxide;
    c) phosphorus trifluoride;
    d) phosphonic acid.
  41. Contrast the properties of the two common allotropes of phosphorus.
    White phosphorus is a very reactive, white, waxy substance that consists of P4, while red phosphorus is a red powdery solid that consists of long polymer chains.
  42. Suggest a structure for the O2F2 molecules, explaining your reasoning. Determine the oxidation number of oxygen in this compound and comment on it.
    • The oxidation number of +1 for oxygen is a result of each atom being sandwiched between a more electronegative fluorine atom.
  43. Summarize the unique features of fluorine chemistry
    Fluorine has a very weak fluorine-fluorine bond; its compounds with metals are often ionic when those of the comparable chlorides are covalent; it forms the strongest hydrogen bonds known; it tends to stabilize high oxidation states; the solubility of its metal compounds is often quite different than those of the other halides
  44. Which of the folowing statements is false?
    • a) Chemical properties of group 15 elements are uniform.
    • b) Group 15 elements exhibit a wide range of oxidation states.
    • c) Group 15 elements form many compounds with oxygen.
  45. White and black phosphorus are ___________ forms of the chemical element phosphorus.
    • a) isotopic
    • b) allotropic
    • c) polymorphic
  46. Which of the following elements is used as a dopant in solid state devices?
    • a) Sb
    • b) As
    • c) P
  47. Going down the group:
    • a. The +3 oxidation state becomes more favorable relative to the +5 one.
    • b. The +5 oxidation state becomes more favorable relative to the +3 one.
    • c. The +3 oxidation state predominates; the +5 one is rarely manifested.
  48. The Haber-Bosch process, which has had a major impact on civilization, produces:
    • a. hydrazine, N2H4
    • b. ammonia, NH3
    • c. hydroxylamine, NHOH
  49. PF3 is a ligand that is similar to CO in that:
    • a) It is a weak σ-donor and a weak π-acceptor.
    • b) It is a strong σ-donor and a strong π-acceptor.
    • c) It is a weak σ-donor and a strong π-acceptor.
  50. The synthesis of organophosphorus compounds includes:
    • a) PH3
    • b) PCl3
    • c) POCl3
  51. NO is:
    • a) rapidly oxidized by O2 to NO2 in the atmosphere.
    • b) an odd electron molecule.
    • c) not an atmospheric pollutant.
  52. When heated above 200°C, phosphoric acid, H3PO4:
    • a) forms polyphosphates by condensation
    • b) decomposes thermally
    • c) releases P2O5
  53. Select the correct answer:
    • a. Organometallic compounds of group 15 elements in +3 oxidation state become less stable in the order Bi >
    • Sb > As. Aryl compounds are more stable than alkyls.
    • b. Organometallic compounds of group 15 elements in +3 oxidation state become less stable in the order As >
    • Sb > Bi. Aryl compounds are more stable than alkyls.
    • c. Organometallic compounds of group 15 elements in +3 oxidation state become less stable in the order As >
    • Sb > Bi. Aryl compounds are less stable than alkyls.
  54. The electron configuration of group 16 elements is ns2np4. This configuration suggests.
    • a. a maximum oxidation number of +6
    • b. a maximum oxidation number of +4
    • c. a maximum oxidation number of –2
  55. Sulfur-containing impurities that are naturally present in crude oil and natural gas are removed by:
    • a. fractional distillation
    • b. the Frasch process
    • c. the Claus process
  56. Water can be viewed as a hydride of oxygen. By comparison with the heavier hydrides in the group, water's melting and boiling points are higher than expected because:
    • a. The water molecules have the lowest bond length of all group 16 hydrides.
    • b. The water molecules form hydrogen bonds to a much higher degree than the remaining group 16 hydrides.
    • c. The water molecules have the highest bond angles of all group 16 hydrides.
  57. The geometry of the SF4 molecule is:
    • a. tetrahedral
    • b. triagonal planar
    • c. octahedral
  58. Identify the free radical chain reaction that produce acid rain in the atmosphere:
  59. Select the correct statement about the oxoanions of sulfur:
    • a) SO32- is a strong oxidizing agent; SO42- is a strong reducing agent; S2O82- is unreactive.
    • b) SO32- is a strong reducing agent; SO42- is a strong oxidizing agent; S2O82- is unreactive.
    • c) SO32- is a strong reducing agent; SO42- is unreactive; S2O82- is a strong oxidizing agent.
  60. Diatomic oxygen readily removes electrons from metals to form a variety of metal oxides. In general:
    • a) Oxides of M2+ ions (MO formula) have a rock salt structure (6:6 coordination).
    • b) Oxides of M3+ ions (M2O3 formula) have a fluorite structure (6:3 and 8:4 coordination).
    • c) Oxides with an MO4 formula have a 6:4 coordination.
  61. S, Se, and Te form polyanions as follows:
    • a. S forms chains and bicyclic ring polysulfides.
    • b. Se forms chain and ring polyselenides.
    • c. Te forms chain polytellurides only.
  62. In the case of oxoacids of sulfur:
    • a. Sulfuric acid decomposes but forms stable salts.
    • b. Thiosulfuric acid is a strong acid.
    • c. Sulfurous acid is actually an aqueous solution of SO2.
  63. Sulfur/nitrogen compounds:
    • a) decompose explosively
    • b) are stable
    • c) do not exist
  64. The halogens have high electron affinity because:
    • a. They can accommodate only one electron in their valence shell; therefore the energy required for this process is low.
    • b. The incoming electron can occupy an orbital of an incomplete valence shell and thus experience strong nuclear attraction.
    • c. The nuclear attraction to the electrons in their atoms is high and tends to draw new electrons in.
  65. All group 17 elements:
    • a. undergo thermal or photochemical dissociation in the gas phase to form free radicals
    • b. are gases at room temperature
    • c. sublimate easily
  66. Why are aqueous fluoride solutions not used in the production of fluorine by electrolysis?
    • a. because fluorides are insoluble in water.
    • b. because water is oxidized at a much lower potential than F- and because any F2 produced would react rapidly with the water.
    • c. because the electrolysis of water solutions of fluorides would require a prohibitively large amount of water and energy.
  67. Fluorine atoms are small and their electrons are tightly gripped by the nucleus. Therefore, molecular fluorine compounds have:
    • a. high polarizabilities and strong dispersion interactions.
    • b. low polarizabilities and strong dispersion interactions.
    • c. low polarizabilities and weak dispersion interactions.
  68. What is the molecular (electron-domain) geometry of ClF3 as predicted by VSEPR?
    • a. trigonal bipyramidal
    • b. trigonal pyramidal
    • c. trigonal planar
  69. When I2 is added to a solution containing I-, a deep brown color develops. How can that phenomenon be explained?
    • a) I- is oxidized to I2.
    • b) I2 is dissolved in the water.
    • c) Polyiodides, such as I3- and I5-, are formed.
  70. Perchlorate is a very weak Brønsted base and a weak Lewis base and is used as a weakly coordinating ion that can be easily displaced from a complex by other ligands. When using the perchlorate ion in this situation, care must be taken because:
    • a. The perchlorate ion is a powerful oxidizing agent that can explode unexpectedly and unpredictably.
    • b. The perchlorate ion is a powerful oxidizing agent that rapidly oxidizes the ligands before complexes are formed for further study.
    • c. The perchlorate ion is a powerful oxidizing agent that rapidly oxidizes the metal acceptors before complexes are formed for further study.
  71. Basic solutions of chlorine, bromine, and iodine undergo _____, with the formation of +1 (XO-) and –1 (X-) species:
    • a) oxidation
    • b) reduction
    • c) disproportionation
  72. The oxidation of molecules and ions by halogen oxoanions increases in the order:
    • a) ClO2-< ClO3-< ClO4-
    • b) ClO4-< BrO4-< IO4-
    • c) IO3-< IO4-
  73. Why must care be taken during the high-temperature depolymerization of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)?
    • a. because the monomer, tetrafluoroethylene, is highly toxic
    • b. because a byproduct, perfluoroisobutylene, is highly toxic
    • c. because PTFE decomposes explosively at high temperatures
  74. The inert gases possess an electron configuration of ns2np6. Which statement applies to their ionization energy and electron affinity?
    • a. low ionization energies and negative electron affinities
    • b. high ionization energies and negative electron affinities
    • c. low ionization energies and positive electron affinities
  75. Which noble gas seems to defy the notion that group 18 elements are chemically inert?
    • a) Xe
    • b) Kr
    • c) Ar
  76. Which of the noble gases is classified as an indoor air pollutant?
    • a) Ne
    • b) Rn
    • c) No inert gas is an air pollutant
  77. Xe forms _________ with fluorine.
    • a) XeF2 and XeF4.
    • b) XeF2, XeF4, and XeF6.
    • c) no compounds.
  78. Xenon fluorides:
    • a) are strong reducing agents.
    • b) form complexes with F2.
    • c) form complexes with F-.
  79. Xe fluorides are of interest because:
    • a. They can be used to prepare noble gas compounds with elements other than fluorine and oxygen.
    • b. The molecular shape of their complexes with fluoride ions is unknown; more research needs to be done.
    • c. They are the only compounds of Xe.
  80. Xe oxides can be prepared by direct interaction of the element with oxygen.
    • a. This statement is correct.
    • b. This statement is incorrect.
    • c. Only XeO3 can be prepared that way; XeOF2 and XeOF4 cannot.
  81. Organoxenon compounds can be prepared by:
    • a. direct interaction between an aromatic hydrocarbon and Xe
    • b. hydrolysis of phenol in the presence of a Xe fluoride
    • c. xenodeborylation
  82. The stability of the complexes M(CO)5E (where M = Cr, Mo, or W and E = Ar, Kr, or Xe) decreases in the order:
    • a. W > Mo ≈ Cr and Xe > Kr > Ar
    • b. Cr > Mo ≈ W and Xe > Kr > Ar
    • c. Cr > Mo ≈ W and Ar > Kr > Xe
  83. Which statement is correct?
    • a. Like Xe, Kr and Rn form fluorides and oxides.
    • b. Kr and Rn can form fluorides but in a more limited fashion than Xe.
    • c. Kr and Rn do not form fluorides and oxides.

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