Epi final

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Epi final
2011-12-10 12:52:36
Epi final

Epi final
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  1. Which of the following outcomes is not usually associated with world
    population growth?
  2. The estimated global burden of disease (percent)
    linked to environmental sources is:
    25% to 33%
  3. Natural population replacemtn fertility rate is estimates to be
    2.1 births per woman
  4. Enviormental risk transition is most likely to be characterized by :
    control of the household risks and creation of new set of problems
  5. The effect of rapid growth of teh world's population include:

    carrying capacity
    All the above

    • Urbanization
    • Overtaxing
    • carrying capacity
  6. The risk of acquiring a given diease during the time period is best determined by
    the incidence rate for that diesase in a given part of time
  7. Limitations of enviormental epidemiology include the fact that:
    accurate assessment of exposure is difficult.
  8. environmentally associated diseases often have low incidence and prevalence.
    long latency periods often occur between initial exposures and disease outcomes.
  9. All of the above
  10. Used in cohort studies, the reletive risk is a measure of the strength of association between a possible risk factor and a disease
    T or F
  11. Illness due to a specific diease or health condition
  12. NOT considered a use of epidemiology
    To provide healthcare services to specific individuals
  13. Descriptive epidemiology refers to studies that
    are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and
    disease within a population

    T or F
  14. Epidemiology searches for associations between exposures and ....
    health outcomes
  15. The term epidemiologic transition describes a
    shift in the patterns of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily
    to chronic diseases to causes associated with infectious diseases.

    True or False
  16. The probability that an event will occur (i.e.,
    an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a
    certain age) is known as:
  17. The English anesthesiologist who linked cholera
    outbreaks to contaminated water and innovated several of the key epidemiologic
    methods that remain valid and in use today was
    John Snow
  18. Those members of the population who are capable
    of developing a disease or condition are known as
    the population at risk
  19. Prevalance measures do NOT aid in:
    determining the risk of diease
  20. Representativeness, or external validity, refers
    to the generalizability of the findings to the population from which the data
    have been taken.

    t or f
  21. The systematic and continuous gathering of
    information about the occurrence of diseases and other health phenomena is
    known as
    public health surveillance
  22. Using health-related data that precede diagnosis
    and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further
    public health response is known as
    syndromic surveillance
  23. The number of live births reported in an area
    during a given time interval divided by the number of women aged 15 to 44 is
    known as the
    general fertility rate
  24. True or False:
    One objextive of descriptive epidemiology is to monitor known dieases as well as idenify emerging problems?
  25. The term that indicates cases of disease that
    occur in a specific geographic region is
    spatial clustering
  26. Gradual changes in the frequency of dieases over long periods of time refer to...
    secular trends
  27. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an example of an ongoing cross-sectional study

    T or F
  28. Criteria that epidemiologist use to observe the exposure before the outcome?
  29. T or F
    Confounding means that the effect of an exposure
    on an outcome has been distorted by an extraneous factor that has entered into
    the exposure-disease association
  30. A case-control study can examie only a single outcome or a limited set of outcomes....T or f
  31. Random assignment of subjects to study groups helps to control for....
    biases due to confounding
  32. An erroneous inference that may occur because an
    association observed between variables on an aggregate level does not necessarily reflect the association at an individual level is known as an
    Ecologic fallacy
  33. Used in case-control studies, a type of indirect
    measure of the association between frequency of exposure and frequency of
    outcome is known as the
    Odds Ratio
  34. Subjects are classified according to their
    exposure to a factor of interest and then are observed over time to document
    the incidence of disease in what type of study?
    prospective cohort study
  35. The ratio of the incidence rate of a disease in an exposed group to the incidence rate of that disease in a nonexposed group is the....
    relative risk
  36. T or F
    A weakness of exposure assessment is that high-quality data on exposures are often unavalible.
  37. A plan or course of action of a government, policalital party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters....
    a policy
  38. The adaption of health-related polices, laws, and programs that are supported by empirical data refers to...
    Evidence-based public health
  39. The ability of a screening test to identiy correctly all screened individuals who actually have the disease refers to:
  40. The entry and development or multiplication of
    an infectious agent in the body of persons or animals is known as:
    An infection
  41. The resistance of an entire community to an
    infectious agent as a result of the immunity of a large proportion of
    individuals in that community to the agent is known as:
    Herd Immunity
  42. an inanimate object that carries infectious diesease agents is a
  43. Zoonotic diesases include:
    Rabies and anthrax, but not measles
  44. The study of the roles of consumption of high-fat foods and sedentary lifestyles in health is the domain of
    Behavioral epidemiology
  45. Life events that are sustained over a long period of time are known as
    Chronic Strains
  46. The invovluntary breathing of cigarette smoke by nonsmokers is an enviorments where there are cigarette smokers present is known as...
    all the above
  47. A pattern of drinking that results in harm to
    one’s health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work is known as:
    alcohol abuse
  48. An anxiety disorder that some people develop
    after seeing or living through an event that caused or threatened serious harm
    or death is known as:
    Posttraumatic stress disorder
  49. Estimated global burden of diease linked to enviormental sources:
    25% to 33%
  50. Enviormental risk of transistiona is most likely to be characterized by:
    control of household risks and creation of a new set of problems
  51. limiations of enviormental epidemiology include that fact that....;p
    all the above
  52. The poisonous substance in Amanita phalloides (“death cap”
    mushroom) is an example of a
  53. Superfund provided for which act:
  54. Example of diease vectors....;p
    all of the above
  55. the infectious agent for plague
  56. NOT classifed as an arboviral dieases?
  57. In what sense is influenza a zoonotic diease?
    it has animal reserviors, espeically birds and swine
  58. Fact about rabies
    post-exposure prophylaxis has been prevents human rabies successfuly
  59. itai-itai diease was a form of poisoning assoicatied with ingestion of ...
  60. Diffuse and spotted melanosis is associated with ingestion of
  61. NOT classifed as a major toxic metal with multiple effects?
  62. True about heavy metals?
    Their specific gravity exceeds that of water by five or more times
  63. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals is a particular hazard associated with
  64. Erin Brockvich was a successful advocate against groundwater polluton from...
  65. Aluminum has been studied as a factor that may be linked to
    Alzheimer's disease
  66. DDT has been found to...
    persist in the enviorment
  67. Agent Orange is an example of...
  68. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are
    persistent in the enviorment
  69. A measure of the absorbed dose of radiation is:
    the rad or gray
  70. Bodily injury from radiation depend on...;p
    all of the above
  71. A major concern of exposure to extremely low
    frequency (ELF) radiation has been
    childhood leukemia and brain cancers
  72. The portions of the optical spectrum that has been mostly closesly associated with adverse human health effects is....
  73. True and False
    About 90% of the world lacks safe drinking water
  74. the two main sources of drinking water are surface water and rainwater

    true or false
  75. In dry climates in the Western US, the major use of water is for:
  76. In the US, disinfection of drinking water with chlorine or other methods is done to remove:
    Pathogenic microoganims
  77. Coagulation during the water treatment is designed primaryly to remove:
    particles suspended in water
  78. very small particles can be removed from drinking water purified by: ;p
    all of the above
  79. To ensure the safety of drinking water in the US, standads are set by:
    The EPA
  80. Municipal drinking water treatment involves all the following except:
    Removal of all dissolved chemicals
  81. Potential water hazards that are not controlled by current treatment methods are:
  82. The human actions that lead to coastal degradation include:... ;p
    all of the above
  83. Prior to this year’s Gulf of Mexico spill, the
    worst oil spill in history that affected U.S. waters was:
    The Exxon Valdez oil spill
  84. Prior to this year’s Gulf of Mexico spill, the
    worst oil spill in history that affected U.S. waters was:
    Cryptosporidium parvum
  85. A thermal inversion causes a:
    greater concentration of pollutants
  86. The worldwide death toll from air pollution has been estimated to range up to approximately:
  87. Which pollutants is not listed by the EPA as a criteria air polluant:
  88. Incorrect! about diesel exhaust:
    • All researchers agree that it poses a risk to
    • human health.
  89. Types of mutations that promote cancer:
    Oncogenes: activating mutations; stimulated continual cell cycle growth

    Tumor suppressor: inactivation mutations; no longer works properly