Biology 261

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Biology 261
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2011-12-05 07:01:30
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Chapter 32
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Chapter 32
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  1. Acute infections:
    • new natural pathogen for
    • which the individual host, and sometimes the entire species, has not developed
    • resistance; rabid and dramatic onset.
  2. Carrier:
    • they themselves show few
    • (or perhaps no) symptoms, but are actively carrying and shedding the pathogen.
  3. Chronic infections:
    • (long-term infections)
    • caused by well-adapted pathogen libing in balance with its host, taking what it
    • needs for existence and causing only a minimum of harm.
  4. Common-source epidemic:
    • - arises as the result of infection (or intoxication) of a large
    • number of people from a contaminated common source such as food or water.
  5. Endemic disease:
    • constantly present with low
    • incidence in a population.
  6. Outbreak:
    • when a number of cases are
    • observed, usually in a relatively short period of time, in an area previously
    • experiencing only sporadic cases of the disease.
  7. Epidemic disease:
    unusually high numbers.
  8. Epidemiology:
    • the study of the
    • occurrence, distribution, and determinants of health and disease in a
    • population and control of a disease in a population
  9. Fomite:
    • Inanimate agents such as
    • bedding, toys, books, and surgical instruments can also transmit disease.
  10. Herd immunity:
    • the resistance of a group
    • to infection due to immunity of a high proportion of the members of the group.
  11. Host-to-host epidemic:
    • the disease incidence shows
    • a relatively slow, progressive rise and a gradual decline
  12. Incidence:
    • the number of new cases of an individual
    • disease in a population in a given time period.
  13. Morbidity:
    • the incidence of disease in
    • populations and includes both fatal and nonfatal diseases.
  14. Mortality:
    • The incidence of death in a
    • population
  15. Pandemic:
    - widespread, usually worldwide, epidemic.
  16. Prevalence:
    • the number of total cases
    • (new and existing) of an individual disease in a population in a given time
    • period.
  17. Quarantine:
    • restricts the movement of a person with active
    • infection to prevent spread of the pathogen to other people.
  18. Surveillance:
    • the observation,
    • recognition, and reporting of disease as they occur
  19. Vectors:
    - living agents transmitting pathogens.
  20. Vehicles:
    • food and water are
    • potential disease vihicles.
  21. Zoonosis:
    • a disease that primarily
    • infects animals but is occasionally transmitted to humans.
  22. What is the subject of epidemiology?
    Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and determinants of health and disease in a population, and control of a disease in a population.
  23. How do the leading causes of death change in the United States from year 1900 up to now? What are the infectious diseases killing most people in the US and in the world as of now?
    • Infectious diseases were the leading causes of death in 1900, whereas today they are much less important.
    • Heart disease and cancer
  24. What are the events associated with a progression of typical acute infectious disease.
    1) Infection

    2) Incubation period

    3) Acute period

    4) Decline period – rapid by crisis or slow by lysis

    5) Convalescence period
  25. Distinguish between an endemic, epidemic and pandemic disease. Give examples of each.
    Endemic disease is constantly present with low incidence in a population.

    Epidemic disease is unusually high numbers

    Pandemic disease is a widely distributed epidemic.
  26. What are the recognized reservoirs of an
    infectious disease? How is an acute carrier different from a chronic carrier and give an example of each?
    Reservoirs or sites in which infectious agents remain viable and from which infection of individuals may occur. (may be either animate or inanimate)

    • Acute infections or new natural pathogen for which the individual
    • host, and sometime the entire species, has not developed resistance: rapid and
    • dramatic onset.

    Chronic infections (long-term infections) or caused by well-adapted pathogen living in balance with its host, taking what it needs for existence and causing only minimum harm.
  27. What causes Antrax and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Anthrax: Causative agent: Bacillus anthracis Infection sources: Milk or meat from infected
    • animals Control measures: Destruction of
    • infected animals
  28. What causes Bacillary dysentery and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Bacillary dysentery: Causative agent: Shigella dysenteriae Infection sources: Fecal contamination of
    • food and water Control measures:
    • Detection and control of carriers; oversight of food handlers; decontamination
    • of water supplies
  29. What causes Botulism and how is the diseases spread?
    - Botulism: Causative agent: Clostridium botulinum Infection sources: Soil-contaminated food Control measures: Proper preservation of food
  30. What causes Cholera and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Cholera: Causative agent: Vibrio cholerae Infection sources: Fecal contamination of
    • food and water Control measures:
    • Decontamination of public water sources; immunization
  31. What causes Giardiasis and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Giardiasis: Causative agent: Giardia spp. Infection sources: Fecal contamination of
    • water Control measures: Decontamination
    • of public water sources
  32. What causes Hepatitis and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Hepatitis: Causative agent: Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E Infection sources: Infected humans Control measures: Decontamination of
    • contaminated fluids and fomites; immunization if available (A and B)
  33. What causes Typhoid fever and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Typhoid fever: Causative agent: Salmonella typhi Infection sources: Fecal contamination of
    • food and water Control measures:
    • Decontamination of public water sources; oversight of food handlers;
    • pasteurization of milk; immunization
  34. What causes Diphtheria and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Diphtheria: Causative agent: Corynebacterium diphtheria Infection sources: Human cases and carriers;
    • infected food and fomites Control
    • measures: Immunization; quarantine of infected individuals
  35. What causes Tuberculosis and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Tuberculosis: Causative agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection sources: Sputum from human cases;
    • infected milk Control measures:Treatment
    • with isoniazid; pasteurization of milk
  36. What causes Whooping cough and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Whooping cough: Causative agent: Bordetella pertussis Infection sources: Human cases Control measures: Immunization; case
    • isolation
  37. What causes German measles and how is the diseases spread?
    • - German measles: Causative agent: Rubella virus Infection sources: Human cases Control measures: Immunization; avoid contact
    • between infected individuals and pregnant women
  38. What causes AIDS and how is the diseases spread?
    • - AIDS: Causative agent: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Infection sources: Infected body fluids,
    • especially blood and semen Control
    • measures: Treatment with metabolic inhibitors (not curative)
  39. What causes Malaria and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Malaria: Causative agent: Plasmodium spp. Infection sources: Bite from Anopheles
    • mosquito Control measures: Control
    • mosquito population; treat infected humans with antimalarial drugs
  40. What causes Plague and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Plague: Causative agent: Yersinia pestis Infection sources: Bite from flea Control measures: Control rodent populations;
    • immunization
  41. What causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Causative agent: Rickettsia
    • rickettsii Infection sources: Bite from
    • infected tick Control measures: Avoid
    • tick exposure; treat infected individuals with antibiotics
  42. What causes Rabies and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Rabies: Causative agent: Rabies virus Infection sources: Bite by carnivores,
    • contact with infected neural tissue
    • Control measures: Avoid animal bites; immunization of animal handlers
    • and exposed individuals
  43. What causes Tularemia and how is the diseases spread?
    • - Tularemia: Causative agent: Francisella tularensis Infection sources: Contact with rabbits Control measures: Avoid contact with rabbits;
    • treat infected individuals with antibiotics
  44. 9.
    What are examples of diseases that are spread via common-source epidemics, host
    to host epidemics, vectors and direct contact?
    - Common-source epidemics: cholera

    - Host to host epidemics: Influenza and chickenpox

    - Vectors: West Nile virus

    • - Direct contact: Common cold, influenza, syphilis (Treponema
    • pallidum), and gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
  45. What is a disease reservoir? Give examples of
    several reservoirs and diseases associated with each.
    • - A reservoir is a site in shich infectious agents remain viable and
    • from which infection of individuals may occur.

    • - Soil (Clostridium tetani [the causal agent of tetanus]), organisms
    • (staphylococci and streptococci [cause: diphtheria, gonorrhea, and mumps])
  46. How is a balance between a host and a parasite
    achieved? What is heard immunity, how is it achieved and how does it protect a
    population? Does everyone have to be immunized to achieve herd immunity? Why?
    • - As the host population develops resistance, the spread of the
    • pathogen is checked, and eventually a balance is reached in which host and
    • pathogen are in equilibrium.

    • - Herd immunity is the resistance of a group to infection due to
    • immunity of a high proportion of the members of the group.If a high proportion
    • of individual sin a group are immune to an infectious agent, then the whole
    • population will be protected.

    - No, if a population is 70% immunized it will be absent from the population, the immunized individuals protect the rest of the population because they cannot acquire and pass on the pathogen, thus breaking the cycle of infection.
  47. Where are the most cases of AIDS found and how
    are most cases of HIV transmitted?
    - The most cases of AIDS is found in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    - Transmitted during sexual activity or by blood-contaminated needles.
  48. What
    are the three most common types of nosocomial infections and what organisms are
    most often associated with each?
    • • Staphylococcus spp., particularly S. aureus., cause wound and
    • blood infections, pneumonia.

    • • Escherichia
    • coli , Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas
    • aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumonia - urinary
    • infections.

    • • Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli
    • have tendency to have multiple drug resistance
  49. . What are the major factors leading to a spread
    of nosocomial infections? Why are hospital patients more susceptible than
    normal individuals to pathogens?
    Major factors leas=ding to a spread of nosocomial infections:

    • -
    • Many patients have low resistance to infectious disease because of
    • their illness

    • - Healthcare facilities treat infectious disease patients, and these
    • patients may be pathogen reservoirs

    - Multiple patients in rooms and wards increace the chance of cross-infection

    - Healthcare personnel move from patient to patient, increasing the probability of transfer of pathogens

    - Healthcare procedures such as hypodermic injection, spinal puncture, and removal of tissue samples or fluids, breach the skin barrier and may introduce pathogens into the patient

    - In maternity wards of hospitals, newborn infants are unusually susceptible to certain infections because they lack well-developed defense mechanisms

    • - Surgical procedures expose internal organs to sources of contamination, and the sress of surgery often diminishes the resistance of the
    • patient to infection

    - Certain therapeutic drugs, such as steroids used for controlling inflammation, increase the susceptibility to infection

    • - Use of antibiotics to control infections selects for
    • antibiotic-resistant organisms.
  50. What are the common public measures used for
    controlling of an infectious disease? Compare public measures for controlling
    infectious disease caused by insect reservoirs and by human carriers.
    • Control directed against reservoir

    • – Eradication for wild and domestic animal reservoirs: rabies carriers
    • and insects.

    – Isolation for human carriers.

    • Control of transmission

    – Water treatment, food quality control, masks.

    • Immunization

    • – Smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, mumps,
    • rubella, polio. Hepatitis A and B. Bacterial pneumonia and meningitis.
  51. What public health methods can be used to halt
    the spread of an epidemic disease once it has begun?
    • Quarantine -

    • – time limit for quarantine is the longest period of the
    • communicability of the given disease

    • – Cholera, plague, yellow fever, relapsing fever, typhoid fever,
    • smallpox. Ebola hemorrhagic fever and meningitis is some cases.

    • Surveillance, reportable diseases in Table 33.5

    • Pathogen Eradication

    – Small pox in 1980.

    • – Polio, leprosy, Chagas’ disease, dracunculiasis are targeted as of
    • now.

    – Candidates syphilis and rabies.
  52. Contrast mortality due to infectious diseases in
    Africa and the Americas.
    • Causes of death in the Americas and Africa, 2002. (a) Africa; (b) the Americas. There were 10.7 million deaths in Africa, 6.7 million due to infectious diseases. There were 6 million deaths in the Americas, 623,000 due
    • to infectious diseases.
  53. What are some examples of recent outbreaks of
    emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases? What are the factors leading to
    emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases? What emerging and reemerging
    diseases are most important?
    1. Human demographics.

    – Cities versus country living.

    – Sexual and other risk behavior.

    2. Technology and industry.

    – General improvement in public health

    – Nocosomial diseases

    – Transportation, central distribution

    • 3. Economic development and
    • land use.

    • Lyme disease in the US

    – Rift Valley disease in Egypt.

    • 4. International travel and
    • commerce.

    – West Nile virus, Marburg (Ebola) virus

    • 5. Microbial adaptation and
    • change.

    – RNA viruses: SARS, influenza and HIV virus.

    • 6. Breakdown of public
    • health measures.

    – Cryptosporidium outbreak in Wisconsin

    – Diphtheria in the Soviet Union

    • 7. Abnormal natural
    • occurrences that upset the usual host-pathogen balance.

    – Hantavirus and mice
  54. How are the problems of emerging and
    re-emerging diseases addressed by public health officials?
    • Recognition of the disease

    – Surveillance

    • – Clinical syndromes: (1) acute respiratory disease, (2) encephalitis
    • and aseptic meningitis, (3) hemorrhagic fever, (4) acute diarrhea, (5)
    • clustering of high fever cases, (6) unusual clustering of any disease or
    • deaths, and (7) resistance to common drug or treatment.

    • Intervention to prevent transmission
  55. List candidate biological weapons. What are the
    three most important biological weapon agents?
    • Bacillus anthracis

    • Small pox

    • Yersinia pestis

    • Brucella abortus

    • Francisella tularensis

    • Salmonella spp.

    • Rabies virus

    • Ebola virus

    • Huntaviruses

    • Botulinum E toxin.

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