Psych 6-2

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makayxocourt
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Psych 6-2
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2011-12-05 07:06:02
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  1. Learning Sets
    a readiness or predisposition to learn developed from previous learning experiences, as when an organism learns to solve each successive problem (of equal or increasing difficulty) in fewer trials.
  2. Mere exposure effect
    a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. Sometimes called familiarity principle. This effect has been demonstrated with many kinds of thing, including words.
  3. Negative reinforcement
    Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock. This is removed after a response is strengthened.
  4. Negative reinforcer
    A negative reinforcer is an aversive event whose removal follows an operant response. This stimulus increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again under the same circumstances.
  5. Neutral stimulus
    in classical conditioning, it is the type of stimulus that initially or normally does not elicit an overt behavioural response (apart from focusing attention) in the observed organism but when paired with the unconditioned stimulus and presented simultaneously to the organism, the organism eventually responds to it.
  6. Observational (or vicarious) learning
    Learning by observing others (social learning)
  7. Operant behavior
    behavior that OPERATES on the environment, producing consequences.
  8. Operant conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followe dby a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
  9. Partial reinforcement
    reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquistion of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
  10. Positive reinforcement
    increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
  11. Positive reinforcer
    A positive reinforcer is an appetitive event whose presentation follows an operant response. The positive reinforcer increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again under the same circumstances.
  12. Premack Principle
    (relativity theory of reinforcement) states that more probable behaviors with reinforce less probable behaviors. Where activities become reinforcers.
  13. Primary reinforcer
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
  14. Punishment
    an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
  15. Reinforcer
    in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
  16. Shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviors.
  17. Skinner box
    a device that was first developed by B.F. Skinner inhis work on operant conditioning. A subject was placed in the box, and the mechanism gave small amounts of food each time the subject performed a particular action, such as depressing a lever or pecking a disk. This discovered schedules of reinforcement.
  18. Social learning theory
    proposed that this learning occurred through for main stages of imitations: close contact, imitation of superiours, understanding of concepts and role model behavior. This theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. It also suggests that behavior is influenced by these environmental factors or stimuli, and not psychological factors alone.
  19. Spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
  20. Taste aversion
    occurs when a subject associates the taste of a ceratin food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance. It is caused after ingestion of the food causes nausea, sickness or vomiting.
  21. Unconditioned response
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
  22. Unconditioned stimulus
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
  23. Variable-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
  24. Variable-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement scedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

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