Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the ___ and ___
Nervous system, Behaviour
A lot of what we understand about drug effects is from ___ studies.
What is the name of the location at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located at/in cells of the body?
Site of action
The term drug can have many meanings, including a medication to treat a disease, a chemical that is likely to be abused or An ___chemical that significantly alters the functions of bodily cells when taken in relatively low doses.
What type of chemicals are produced within the body, for example after exercise?
To be effective a drug must reach the ____
Site of action
Drugs must be able to enter the ___ to be effective
What do drug molecules interact with to affect the nervous system?
What is the study of drug absorption, distribution within the body and drug elimination?
____ depends on the route of administration
______ depends on how soluble the drug molecule is in fat (to pass through membranes) and on the extent to which the drug binds to blood proteins (albumin)
____ is accomplished by excretion into urine and/or inactivation by enzymes in the liver.
Pharmacokinetics is concerned with drug ___, ___, and ___.
Absorption, distribution and elimination.
Drug elimination can occur via _____ and/or _____.
Excretion in the urine, inactivation by ezymes in the liver
What is the fastest route of drug administration?
IV (intravenous injection)
How can drugs be administered that cannto cross the blood brain barrier?
Inject directly into brain via a catheter.
___ is absorbed much more slowly than heroin if taken orally, therefore is less likel to be addictive.
Methadone is an opiate ___.
Drug effectiveness can be measured by looking at the _____.
Dose response curve
Dose response curve depicts the relationship between ____and magnitude of drug effect.
When a drug is administered repeatedly, its effects will not _____.
In most cases, the effect of repeated drug administration is ____.
Tolerance (effects diminish)
Tolerance is where the effects of a drug ____.
In some cases, the effect of repeated drug administration is ____.
Sensitisation is where a drug becomes more _____.
Once tolerance has occurred, then individuals will experience ______ is the drug is withdrawn suddenly.
____ menchanisms are responsible for tolerance and withdrawal.
Which two things can happen to receptor cells as a compensatory mechanism which is responsible for tolerance and withdrawal?
Decrease in number or become less sensitive to the drug.
Some drug effects may show tolerance, and other may not due to drugs having ______.
Multiple sites of action
In _____, tolerance can develop quickly to sedation but not anxiolytic (effects of sedation wear off quickly).
What is a drug that binds to and activates a receptor at the postsynaptic cell?
What is a drug that binds to but does not activate a postsynaptic receptor?
What are drugs that attach to postsynaptic binding sites and interfere with the normal action of receptors?
Drugs that activate presynaptic autoreceptors and reduce the amount of neurotransmitter release are ____.
Drugs that inactivate presynaptic autoreceptors and increase the amount of neurotransmitter rlease are ____.
What is an adaptive state that manifests itself by intense physical disturbances when the administration of a drug is suspended (Eddy et al. 1965)?
What is a condition in which the drug produces a feeling of satisfaction and a psychic drive that requires periodic or continuous administration of the drug to produce pleasure or to avoid discomfort?
In the past, focus had been on ____ addiction.
____ does not produce any physical dependency (tolerance and withdrawal).
One problem of the definition of addiction is that it is not an _____ condition. It is a continuum of intensity related to many factors e.g. amount, frequency, persistence, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms.
All or none
The release of ___ seems to be necessary for reinforcement to take place.
In drugs that affect behaviour, most sites of action are locaed in/on particular cells within the ___.
Most drugs that affect behaviour do so by affecting ____.
Drugs that lead to dependency must first ____ people's behaviour.
_____ of reinforcement takes precedent over quantitiy.
The most addictive drugs are those that have ___ effects.
All natural reinforcers such as food, water and sexual contact have one physiological effect in common: they cause the release of ___ in the ____.
Dopamine, Nucleus Accumbens
Addictive drugs trigger the release of _____ in the Nucleus Accumbens.
The first changes in relation to addictive drugs appear to take place in the ______.
Ventral Tegmental Area
The ____ plays a critical role in instumental conditioning.
____ reinforcement is where a behaviour is repeated in a certain situation if it is regularly followed by an appetitive stimulus.
____ reinforcement is where a behaviour that reduces an aversive stimulus is reinforced.
Negative reinforcement occurs when a response makes an ____ stimulus end.
____ reinforcement seems to be what provokes drug taking in the first place.
_____ reinforcement could play a part in maintaining someone's addiction.
An impulse to take a drug is a ____.
____ explains why stimuli that have been associated with drugs in the past can elicit craving.
___cannot be completely explained by withdrawal symptoms becuase it can occur after an addict has refrained over a period of time.
____ can be defined as a shift to the right in the dose respnse curve.
Whose experiment on rats showed that stimuli in a familiar environment will produce a classically conditioned response and give protection?
Seigal's rat experiment illustrated the ______.
Conditoned Place Preference Procedure
Almost all rats in Seigal's experiment that received a drug overdose in the new environment ___.
___ is not necessary for dependence in the DSM-IV definition.
____ does not constitute a necessary condition for drugs to act as positive reinforcers.
____is a resumption of drug taking following a period of abstinence,
Blum et al (1990) reported that they had isolated a gene for ____.
One problem of the gene theory is that the A1 allele may be the ___ of abuse rather than the ____.
It is more likely that the DRD2 gene is a _____ gene rather than a gene for alcoholism.
There is a decrease in D2 receptor density in the NA in A1 allele carriers, which may indicate an ___ reward system.