Addiction

Card Set Information

Author:
rach123
ID:
120929
Filename:
Addiction
Updated:
2011-12-05 11:08:11
Tags:
addiction psychobiology
Folders:

Description:
Addiction - Psychobiology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user rach123 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the ___ and ___
    Nervous system, Behaviour
  2. A lot of what we understand about drug effects is from ___ studies.
    Animal
  3. What is the name of the location at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located at/in cells of the body?
    Site of action
  4. The term drug can have many meanings, including a medication to treat a disease, a chemical that is likely to be abused or An ___chemical that significantly alters the functions of bodily cells when taken in relatively low doses.
    exogenous
  5. What type of chemicals are produced within the body, for example after exercise?
    Endogenous
  6. To be effective a drug must reach the ____
    Site of action
  7. Drugs must be able to enter the ___ to be effective
    CNS
  8. What do drug molecules interact with to affect the nervous system?
    Target sites
  9. What is the study of drug absorption, distribution within the body and drug elimination?
    Pharmacokinetics
  10. ____ depends on the route of administration
    Absorption
  11. ______ depends on how soluble the drug molecule is in fat (to pass through membranes) and on the extent to which the drug binds to blood proteins (albumin)
    Drug distribution
  12. ____ is accomplished by excretion into urine and/or inactivation by enzymes in the liver.
    Drug elimination
  13. Pharmacokinetics is concerned with drug ___, ___, and ___.
    Absorption, distribution and elimination.
  14. Drug elimination can occur via _____ and/or _____.
    Excretion in the urine, inactivation by ezymes in the liver
  15. What is the fastest route of drug administration?
    IV (intravenous injection)
  16. How can drugs be administered that cannto cross the blood brain barrier?
    Inject directly into brain via a catheter.
  17. ___ is absorbed much more slowly than heroin if taken orally, therefore is less likel to be addictive.
    Methadone
  18. Methadone is an opiate ___.
    Agonist
  19. Drug effectiveness can be measured by looking at the _____.
    Dose response curve
  20. Dose response curve depicts the relationship between ____and magnitude of drug effect.
    Drug dose
  21. When a drug is administered repeatedly, its effects will not _____.
    Remain constant
  22. In most cases, the effect of repeated drug administration is ____.
    Tolerance (effects diminish)
  23. Tolerance is where the effects of a drug ____.
    Diminish
  24. In some cases, the effect of repeated drug administration is ____.
    Sensitisation
  25. Sensitisation is where a drug becomes more _____.
    Effective
  26. Once tolerance has occurred, then individuals will experience ______ is the drug is withdrawn suddenly.
    Withdrawal symptoms
  27. ____ menchanisms are responsible for tolerance and withdrawal.
    Compensatory
  28. Which two things can happen to receptor cells as a compensatory mechanism which is responsible for tolerance and withdrawal?
    Decrease in number or become less sensitive to the drug.
  29. Some drug effects may show tolerance, and other may not due to drugs having ______.
    Multiple sites of action
  30. In _____, tolerance can develop quickly to sedation but not anxiolytic (effects of sedation wear off quickly).
    Benzodiazepene.
  31. What is a drug that binds to and activates a receptor at the postsynaptic cell?
    Direct agonist
  32. What is a drug that binds to but does not activate a postsynaptic receptor?
    Antagonist
  33. What are drugs that attach to postsynaptic binding sites and interfere with the normal action of receptors?
    Indirect antagonists
  34. Drugs that activate presynaptic autoreceptors and reduce the amount of neurotransmitter release are ____.
    Antagonists
  35. Drugs that inactivate presynaptic autoreceptors and increase the amount of neurotransmitter rlease are ____.
    Agonists
  36. What is an adaptive state that manifests itself by intense physical disturbances when the administration of a drug is suspended (Eddy et al. 1965)?
    Physical dependence
  37. What is a condition in which the drug produces a feeling of satisfaction and a psychic drive that requires periodic or continuous administration of the drug to produce pleasure or to avoid discomfort?
    Psychological dependence
  38. In the past, focus had been on ____ addiction.
    Physical
  39. ____ does not produce any physical dependency (tolerance and withdrawal).
    Cocaine
  40. One problem of the definition of addiction is that it is not an _____ condition. It is a continuum of intensity related to many factors e.g. amount, frequency, persistence, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms.
    All or none
  41. The release of ___ seems to be necessary for reinforcement to take place.
    Dopamine
  42. In drugs that affect behaviour, most sites of action are locaed in/on particular cells within the ___.
    CNS
  43. Most drugs that affect behaviour do so by affecting ____.
    Synaptic transmission
  44. Drugs that lead to dependency must first ____ people's behaviour.
    Reinforce
  45. _____ of reinforcement takes precedent over quantitiy.
    Immediacy
  46. The most addictive drugs are those that have ___ effects.
    Immediate
  47. All natural reinforcers such as food, water and sexual contact have one physiological effect in common: they cause the release of ___ in the ____.
    Dopamine, Nucleus Accumbens
  48. Addictive drugs trigger the release of _____ in the Nucleus Accumbens.
    Dopamine
  49. The first changes in relation to addictive drugs appear to take place in the ______.
    Ventral Tegmental Area
  50. The ____ plays a critical role in instumental conditioning.
    Basal Ganglia
  51. ____ reinforcement is where a behaviour is repeated in a certain situation if it is regularly followed by an appetitive stimulus.
    Positive
  52. ____ reinforcement is where a behaviour that reduces an aversive stimulus is reinforced.
    Negative
  53. Negative reinforcement occurs when a response makes an ____ stimulus end.
    Unpleasant
  54. ____ reinforcement seems to be what provokes drug taking in the first place.
    Positive
  55. _____ reinforcement could play a part in maintaining someone's addiction.
    Negative
  56. An impulse to take a drug is a ____.
    Craving
  57. ____ explains why stimuli that have been associated with drugs in the past can elicit craving.
    Classical conditioning
  58. ___cannot be completely explained by withdrawal symptoms becuase it can occur after an addict has refrained over a period of time.
    Craving
  59. ____ can be defined as a shift to the right in the dose respnse curve.
    Tolerance
  60. Whose experiment on rats showed that stimuli in a familiar environment will produce a classically conditioned response and give protection?
    Seigal (1982)
  61. Seigal's rat experiment illustrated the ______.
    Conditoned Place Preference Procedure
  62. Almost all rats in Seigal's experiment that received a drug overdose in the new environment ___.
    Died
  63. ___ is not necessary for dependence in the DSM-IV definition.
    Withdrawal
  64. ____ does not constitute a necessary condition for drugs to act as positive reinforcers.
    Withdrawal
  65. ____is a resumption of drug taking following a period of abstinence,
    Replase
  66. Blum et al (1990) reported that they had isolated a gene for ____.
    Alcoholism
  67. One problem of the gene theory is that the A1 allele may be the ___ of abuse rather than the ____.
    Result, Cause
  68. It is more likely that the DRD2 gene is a _____ gene rather than a gene for alcoholism.
    Reinfocement
  69. There is a decrease in D2 receptor density in the NA in A1 allele carriers, which may indicate an ___ reward system.
    Underactive

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview