Principles Quiz 4

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queline
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120938
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Principles Quiz 4
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2012-01-11 11:18:51
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ABGs nutrition electrolytes
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Principles quiz 4 ABGs nutrition electrolytes
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  1. Identify essential nutrients(3)
    • -Carbohydrates
    • -Protein
    • -Lipids (fats)
  2. Name the types of simple carbohydrates and the 3 simplest forms of each them and the dietary sources for them
    • Monosaccharides
    • -Glucose: Liver produces
    • -Fructose: Fruit &Honey
    • -Galactose: Mostly Milk and some fruit
    • Disaccharides
    • - Sucrose: sugar cane & sugar beets (and some fruit and vegetables)
    • -Lactose: Milk
    • -Maltose: Brewed and fermented drinks (like beer), infant formula, and baked goods to give it aroma and browning
  3. Name the 4 Complex Carbohydrates and dietary sources for each
    • Starches: Potatoes, rice, wheat, corn
    • Glycogen: Body supplies enough
    • Insoluble Fiber (celluloses): Skin of fruit, shell of corn and peas, covering of seeds, the bran of the outer layer of a grain
    • Soluble Fiber: Gums, pectins, some hemicelluloses, and mucilages
  4. Name dietary sources for Protein
    • -meat
    • -poultry
    • -fish
    • -dairy products
    • -eggs
  5. Name dietary sources for Tryglicerides
    This was a trick question!!! :)

    Triglicerides: not required in the diet because it is synthisized by the body

    Sterols: Cholesterol not an essential nutrient in the diet because it is made in the liver
  6. This is the process that moves molecules froman area of higher concentration to an area of lower concetration.
    THere is no energy required
    Diffusion
  7. This occurs when molecules move across the concetration gradient.
    Adenosine triphosphate is the energy required for the process.
    Active Transport
  8. This is the process in which water moves from a dilute area (area containing more water) to an area of less water
    Osmosis
  9. What are 3 functions of electrolytes?
    • Maintain homeostasis
    • Fluid regulation
    • Acid-base balance
  10. What regulates the balance of water by releasing antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
    posterior pituitary gland
  11. what regulates sodium by releasing aldosterone?
    Adrenal cortex
  12. What tells the body that it is thirsty?
    Osmoreceptors
  13. Where is the osmoreceptors located?
    Hypothalamus
  14. What makes ADH?
    Hypothalamus
  15. What stores ADH?
    Posterior pituitary gland
  16. What initiates the signal to the pituitary gland to cause ADH to be released?
    Hypothalamus
  17. What happens once ADH is released in to the body?
    the distal tubes of the kidneys respond by reabsorbing water.
  18. What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
    aldosterone
  19. This has properties of sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion
    Aldosterone
  20. As sodium is reabsorbed, water follows as a result of...
    osmotic change
  21. On average, how much urine does an adult excrete daily?
    1.5 L
  22. Can be caused by loss of water or sodium
    dehydration
  23. The following Diagnosis Findings can be found in What?
    Unrine specific gravity >1.020
    Elevated H&H
    Elevated Potassium levels
    Dehydration
  24. Percentage wise, how much of the average healthy adult's weight is water?
    60%
  25. Why is water vital to health and normal cellular function?
    • It serves as:
    • A medium for metabolic reactions within cells

    a transport for nutrients, waste products, and other substances

    a lubricant

    an insulator and shock absorber

    a means of regulating and maintaining body temperature
  26. What are the 2 major compartments the body's fluid is divied?
    Intracellular Fluid (ICF)

    Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
  27. positive charge ions
    cations
  28. negative charge ions
    anions
  29. How are electrolytes generally measured in?
    milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
  30. How are body fluid compartments separated from one another?
    by cell membranes and the capillary membrane
  31. Which small particles move easily across the membranes?
    • ions
    • oxygen
    • carbon dioxide
  32. Which molecules have a harder time moving between fluid compartments?
    Glucose and protein
  33. -Regulation of renal reabsorption or excretion
    -Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption in collecting duct of nephrons

    regulate which electrolyte?
    Sodium
  34. Na+
    Sodium
  35. What electrolyte is responsible for these functions?
    -regulating ECF volume and distribution
    -maintaining blood volume
    -transmitting nerve impulses and contracting muscles
    Sodium
  36. What is the most abundant cation in the ECF?
    Sodium
  37. What is a major contributer to serum osmoality?
    Sodium
  38. Normal Serum Sodium Levels
    135 to 145 mEq/L
  39. 135 to 145 mEq/L
    Normal sodium serum levels
  40. What types of food is sodium found in?
    • Bacon
    • ham
    • processed cheese
    • table salt
  41. What is the major cation in ICF?
    Potassium
  42. -Maintaining ICF osmolality
    -Transmitting nerve and other electrical impulses
    -Regulating cardiac impulse transmission and muscle contraction
    -skeletal and smooth muscle function
    -regulating acid-base balance

    Are all functions of which electrolyte?
    Potassium
  43. -Renal excretion
    -Aldosterone increases its excretion
    -Movement into and out of cells
    -Insulin helps move it into cells; tissue damage and acidosis shifts it out of cells into ECF

    all regulate which electrolyte?
    Potassium
  44. Which electrolyte is vital for skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle activity?
    Potassium
  45. What types of foods contain potassium?
    • many fruits
    • vegetables
    • meat
    • fish
  46. Where is the vast majority of calcium stored in the body?
    Skeletal system
  47. -Redistribution between bones and ECF
    -Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol increase its serum levels;calcitonin decreases serum levels

    Regulate which electrolyte?
    Calcium
  48. -Forming bones
    -transmitting nerve impulses
    -regulating muscle contractions
    -Maintaining cardiac pacemaker (automaticity)
    -Blood clotting

    Are all functions of which electrolyte?
    Calcium
  49. What are some food sources for Calcium?
    • -Milk and milk poducts
    • -dark green leafy vegetables
    • -canned salmon
  50. What are the normal range for serum total Calcium?
    4.5-5.5 mEq/L
  51. Where is magnesium primarily found?
    skeleton and ICF
  52. What is the normal serum level of magnesium?
    1.5-2.5 mEq/L
  53. What types of food can you find magnesium in?
    • cereal grains
    • nuts
    • dried fruit
    • legumes
    • green leafy vegetables
    • dairy products
    • meat
    • fish
  54. -conservation and excretion by the kidneys
    -intestinal absorption increased by vitamin D and parathyroid hormone

    Regulate which electrolyte?
    Magnesium
  55. -intracellular metabolism
    -Operating sodium-potassium pump
    -Relaxing muscle contractions
    -Transmitting nerve impulses
    -Regulating cardiac function

    Are functions of which electorlyte?
    magnesium
  56. -excreted and reabsorbed along with sodium in the kidneys
    -Aldosterone increases its reabsorption with sodium

    regulate which electrolyte?
    chloride
  57. -HCl production
    -regulating ECF balance and vascular volume
    -regulating acid-base balance
    -buffer in oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange in RBCs

    Are functions of which electrolyte?
    chloride
  58. -excretion and reabsorbed along with sodium in kidneys
    -parathyroid hormone decreases serum levels by increasing renal excretion
    -reciprocal relationship with calcium; increasing serum calcium decrease its levels; decreasing serum calcium increases its level

    Regulate which electrolyte?
    phosphate
  59. -forming bones
    -metabolizing carbohydrate, protein, and fat
    -cellular metabolism; producing ATP and DNA
    -Muscle, nerve, and RBC function
    -Regulating acid-base balance
    -Regulating calcium levels

    Are functions of which electrolyte?
    phosphate
  60. -Excretion and reaborption by the kidneys
    -regeneration by the kidneys

    Regulate which electrolyte?
    bicarbonate
  61. Major buffer involved in acid base regulation is the function of which electrolyte?
    Bicarbonate
  62. Chloride is found in which foods?
    • same as sodium
    • bacon
    • ham
    • processed cheese
    • table salt
  63. What is the major anion in the ECF?
    Chloride
  64. What is the major anion of the ICF?
    phosphate
  65. Phoshates can be found in which foods?
    • meat
    • fish
    • poutry
    • milk products
    • legumes
  66. Which foods can you find bicarbonate in?
    • This is a trick question,
    • adequate amounts of bicarbonate are produced through metabolic processes
  67. An important part of regulating the homeostasis of body fluids is regulating their
    (2 things)
    acidity and alkalinity
  68. What are continually produced during metabolism?
    Acids
  69. Which body systems are involved in maintaining the narrow pH range necessary for optimal function?
    • Renal system
    • Respiratory system
    • Buffers
  70. If body fluids become too acidic, what do buffers do to hydrogen ions?
    Buffers bind to hydrogen Ions
  71. If body fluids become too alkaline, what do buffers do to hydrogen ions?
    Buffers release hydrogen ions
  72. What is the major buffer in the ECF?
    The bicarbonate and carbonic acid system
  73. What is the ratio of bicarbonate and carbonic acid?
    • 20 parts of bicarbonate to 1 part of carbonic acid
    • 20:1
  74. How do the lungs help regulate acid-base balance?
    by altering the rate and depth of respirations.
  75. What is a powerful stimulator of the respiratory center in the brain?
    Carbon dioxide
  76. What is the normal levels of PaCO2?
    35-45 mmHg
  77. What is the ultimate long-term regulator of acid-base balance?
    kidneys
  78. Which regulatory system is slower to respond to changes?
    Renal regulation
  79. Which regulatory system is more perminent and selective that tha of the other systems?
    Renal regulation
  80. When excess hydrogen ions are present and pH falls, what do the kidneys do?
    the kidneys reabsorb and regenerate bicarbonate and excrete hydrogen ions
  81. When insufficent hydrogen ions are present and pH rises, what do the kidneys do?
    Bicarbonate is excreted and hydrogen ions are reatined
  82. What are the factors that affect body fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-bace balance?
    • Age
    • sex and Body size
    • environmental temperature
    • lifestyle
  83. What are the 2 basic types of fluid imbalances?
    • isotonic
    • osmolar
  84. These fluid imbalances can occur when water and electrolytes are lost or gained in equal proportions.
    Isotonic imbalances
  85. These fluid imbalances involve the loss or gain of only water.
    Osmolar Imbalances
  86. This is when fluid shifts from the vascular space into an area where it is not readily accessible an extracellular fluid.
    Third space syndrome

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